Article Text


Development and validation of an instrument to measure collaborative goal setting in the care of patients with diabetes


Objective Despite known benefits of patient-perceived collaborative goal setting, we have a limited ability to monitor this process in practice. We developed the Patient Measure of Collaborative Goal Setting (PM-CGS) to evaluate the use of collaborative goal setting from the patient's perspective.

Research design and methods A random sample of 400 patients aged 40 years or older, receiving diabetes care from the Virginia Commonwealth University Health System between 8/2012 and 8/2013, were mailed a survey containing potential PM-CGS items (n=44) as well as measures of patient demographics, perceived self-management competence, trust in their physician, and self-management behaviors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. External validity was evaluated via a structural equation model (SEM) that tested the association of the PM-CGS with self-management behaviors. The direct and two mediated (via trust and self-efficacy) pathways were tested.

Results A total of 259 patients responded to the survey (64% response rate), of which 192 were eligible for inclusion. Results from the factor analysis supported a 37-item measure of patient-perceived CGS spanning five domains: listen and learn; share ideas; caring relationship; measurable objective; and goal achievement support (χ=4366.13, p<0.001; RMSEA=0.08). Results from the SEM supported the external validity of the PM-CGS. The relationship between CGS and self-management was partially mediated by perceived competence (p<0.05). The direct effect between the PM-CGS and self-management was significant (p<0.001).

Conclusions CGS can be validly measured by the 37-item PM-CGS. Use of the PM-CGS can help illustrate actionable deficits in goal-setting discussions.

  • Goal-Setting
  • Type 2 Diabetes

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from


  • Contributors All the named authors contributed substantially to the document, provided input, and approved the final paper.

  • Funding This work was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, grant number R36 HS22202-01.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.