Table 1

Patient characteristics in each group (mean±SD/median (25–75%)/n)

Non-OPT (n=20)OPT (n=20)p Value
Age (years)67±967±60.83
 NYHA 2/NYHA 3 (n)17/317/31.00
 IHD (n)18160.66
 DCM (n)331.00
 Atrial fibrillation (n)140.34
 CCS class 0/1/2 (n)18/2/015/3/10.49
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)120±15124±180.38
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)65±771±80.03
 Heart rate (bpm)69±1473±160.45
 LVEF37±1233±110.33
 Duration of HF (years)5 (3–11)8 (3–14)0.58
 Duration of T2D (years)15±912±60.31
 HbA1c (% / mmol/mol)8.3±0.7 / 68±88.4±0.8/68±90.91
 Retinopathy (n)341.00
 Microalbuminuria* (n)891.00
 Neuropathy† (n)341.00
 eGFR (mL/min)72±2370±200.63
 BMI34±733±50.71
Medication
 ICD or CRT system (n)771.00
 ACE inhibitors (n)19181.00
 β-Blockers (n)18181.00
 Spironolactone (n)8100.75
 Other antihypertensive therapy (n)541.00
 Acetylsalicylic acid (n)19181.00
 Insulin (n)16180.66
 Metformin (n)1091.00
 Sulfonylurea (n)011.00
 GLP-1 analogs (n)250.41
 DPP4 inhibitors (n)020.49
  • *Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary protein excretion >30 mg/L. No patients had >300 mg/L.

  • †Neuropathy was defined as decreased sensibility by monofilament test.

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CCS, Canadian Cardiovascular Society; CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy; DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GLP-1, glucagon-like-peptide-1; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HF, heart failure; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; IHD, ischemic heart disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA, New York Heart Association classification; OPT, optimization; T2D, type 2 diabetes.