Table 1

Sample characteristics

Total, n284
 Male, n (%)144 (50.7)
 Female, n (%)140 (49.3)
Age, years
 Mean (SD)59.3 (10.8)
 Minimum–maximum, years31–83
Immigration status, n (%)
 Born in Canada219 (77.1)
 Born outside Canada65 (22.9)
Education level, n (%)
 High school or less144 (50.7)
 College or more140 (49.3)
Living in poverty, n (%)
 Yes83 (29.2)
 No201 (70.8)
Diabetes duration, years
 Mean (SD)7.4 (7.8)
 Minimum–maximum, years0.25–52
Insulin use
 Yes62 (21.8)
 No222 (78.2)
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol) mean (SD)7.2 (1.4)
HbA1c level by poverty status and education level
 Living in poverty: yes7.6 (1.6)
 Living in poverty: no7.0 (1.3)
 Education level: high school or less7.3 (1.6)
 Education level: college degree or more7.0 (1.1)
  • HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin.