Table 5

Diabetes knowledge, confidence and management at 24 months follow-up

 Young personParent/carer
Intervention
N=144
Control
N=151
Intervention effectIntervention
N=137
Control
N=140
Intervention effect
Median (IQR)Median (IQR)Estimate effect (95% CI)Median (IQR)Median (IQR)Estimate effect (95% CI)
Regimen
 Number of injections per day4.0 (4.0, 4.0)4.0 (4.0, 4.0)−0.14 (−0.43 to 0.15)
 Average total dose of quick acting insulin per day34.0 (25.0, 50.0)30.0 (18.0, 40.0)6.87 (1.26 to 12.57)
 Average total dose of slow acting insulin per day29.0 (22.0, 42.0)27.5 (19.0, 34.5)5.85 (1.58 to 9.73)
Management
Number of severe hypoglycemic episodes in last month; n (%)
 16 (4.4)7 (5.0)0.92* (0.32 to 2.59 
 21 (0.7)3 (2.1)
 33 (2.2)1 (0.7)
Number of times admitted in past 6 months; n (%)
 111 (8.0)12 (8.6)0.95* (0.46 to 1.96) 
 22 (1.5)3 (2.1)
 32 (1.5)1 (0.7)
 41 (0.7)0 (0.0)
 60 (0.0)1 (0.7)
 Number of times attended diabetes clinic in last year4.0 (3.0, 4.0)4.0 (3.5, 4.0)−0.18 (−0.41 to 0.06)
 Visit hospital doctor most/every visit; n (%)121 (93.8)115 (85.8)3.09 (1.07 to 8.91)
 Visit diabetes nurse most/every visit; n (%)125 (94.7)122 (90.4)2.70 (0.92 to 7.92)
 Visit dietician occasionally or more often; n (%)118 (92.2)106 (85.5)2.26 (0.86 to 5.93)
 Visit psychologist occasionally or more often; n (%)27 (25.5)14 (12.8)3.85 (0.77 to 19.31)
PedsQL—general
Physical health summary score90.6 (81.3, 96.9)87.5 (81.3, 96.9)1.14 (−1.28 to 3.32)87.5 (81.3, 93.8)87.5 (71.9, 93.8)2.00 (−2.04 to 5.29)
Psychosocial health summary score80.0 (68.3, 88.3)81.7 (71.7, 88.3)−1.17 (−3.69 to 1.45)75.0 (63.3, 88.3)73.3 (61.7, 84.2)0.03 (−3.08 to 3.66)
Total score83.7 (75.0, 90.2)84.2 (75.0, 90.2)−0.33 (−2.53 to 1.97)77.2 (69.6, 90.2)77.2 (66.3, 87.0)0.58 (−2.70 to 3.46)
PedsQL—diabetes module
Diabetes score63.6 (50.0, 75.0)63.6 (54.5, 75.0)−0.02 (−3.19 to 2.72)56.8 (47.7, 68.2)56.8 (45.5, 71.6)−0.08 (−2.83 to 3.12)
Treatment 1 score75.0 (62.5, 87.5)81.3 (62.5, 93.8)−1.05 (−4.52 to 2.32)68.8 (50.0, 81.3)62.5 (50.0, 81.3)2.20 (−2.31 to 6.88)
Treatment 2 score85.7 (71.4, 95.8)85.7 (75.0, 95.8)−1.49 (−4.53 to 1.42)78.6 (64.3, 89.3)78.6 (64.3, 92.9)−1.10 (−4.49 to 2.50)
Worry score75.0 (58.3, 87.5)75.0 (58.3, 91.7)−0.32 (−4.64 to 4.52)66.7 (50.0, 83.3)66.7 (50.0, 89.6)0.66 (−3.75 to 5.14)
Communication score83.3 (58.3, 91.7)83.3 (66.7, 100.0)−1.06 (−5.34 to 3.59)75.0 (50.0, 100.0)83.3 (50.0, 100.0)−2.54 (−9.06 to 4.16)
Diabetes family responsibility questionnaire
Family responsibility total score—young person (weighted *†)38.0 (34.0, 41.0)37.0 (34.0, 42.0)0.71 (−0.07 to 1.44)35.0 (31.9, 38.0)34.0 (30.0, 38.5)0.60 (−0.43 to 1.47)
Dyadic parent–child responsibility pattern0 (0, 1)0 (0, 1)−0.03 (−0.26 to 0.23)
Strengths and difficulties questionnaire
Strengths and difficulties total average impact score0.0 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)0.04 (−0.14 to 0.21)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)−0.09 (−0.41 to 0.26)
Normal; n (%)130 (91.6)135 (89.4)110 (82.7)107 (77.0)
Borderline; n (%)2 (1.4)4 (2.7)2 (1.5)6 (4.3)
Abnormal; n (%)10 (7.0)12 (8.0)21 (15.8)26 (18.7)
Body weight and insulin
Happiness with body weight7.0 (4.0, 9.0)7.0 (5.0, 9.0)−0.56 (−1.03 to −0.06)
Number of times skipped insulin in last month0 (0, 2)0 (0, 2)1.30* (0.78 to 2.17)
Ever skipped insulin to lose weight; n (%)5 (3.5)7 (4.6)0.72 (0.22 to 2.33)
  • *OR for once or more versus none.

  • †Weighted to allow for non-response.

  • PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory.