Table 3

Association between rate of diabetes-related admissions and ED visits and patient-level and center-level characteristics among pediatric pump users in Ontario (n=3193)

Diabetes-related admissions and ED visits
Diabetes-related admissions and ED visits/100 person-years*Person-yearsAdjusted rate ratio (95% CI)p Value
Patient characteristics
Age group
 <6th birthday (n=224)17.0410041.06 (0.81 to 1.39)0.6862
 6th–13th birthday (n=1448)13.526561(Ref) 1.0
 ≥13th birthday (n=1521)15.9944671.12 (1.06 to 1.18)0.0001
Sex
 Male (n=1634)13.126128(Ref) 1.0
 Female (n=1559)16.3759031.27 (1.03 to 1.57)0.0242
Duration of diabetes
 <5 years (n=1948)14.977727(Ref) 1.0
 ≥5 years (n=1245)14.3443041.23 (1.03 to 1.47)0.0213
Baseline HbA1c
 <7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) (n=718)12.372798(Ref) 1.0
 7.5–9.0% (58–75 mmol/mol) (n=1847)13.4370251.08 (0.90 to 1.31)0.4124
 >9.0% (>75 mmol/mol) (n=631)21.8822091.59 (1.32 to 1.91)<0.0001
Deprivation quintile
 1 (least deprived) (n=1073)12.014047(Ref) 1.0
 2 (n=861)15.0431971.23 (1.00 to 1.51)0.0495
 3 (n=597)11.8122500.89 (0.70 to 1.13)0.3294
 4 (n=387)20.6114921.48 (1.19 to 1.84)0.0004
 5 (most deprived) (n=252)21.719561.60 (1.27 to 2.00)<0.0001
 Missing (n=23)25.91892.12 (0.98 to 4.58)0.0561
Other chronic condition
 No (n=2616)14.759650(Ref) 1.0
 Yes (n=577)14.5723811.05 (0.85 to 1.30)0.6407
At least one diabetes-related admission or ED visit in 2 years prior to index date
 No (n=1869)10.156900(Ref) 1.0
 Yes (n=1324)20.8251312.16 (1.87 to 2.50)<0.0001
Center characteristics
Center type
 Large community (n=1346)14.805053(Ref) 1.0
 Small community (n=642)20.8224731.14 (0.77 to 1.70)0.5055
 Tertiary (n=1205)11.3045050.93 (0.71 to 1.21)0.5848
24-hour support
 No (n=1730)16.456535(Ref) 1.0
 Yes (n=1463)12.6554970.86 (0.70 to 1.05)0.1265
Physician model
 Pediatric endocrinologist (n=1946)11.987310(Ref) 1.0
 Generalist (n=606)17.8122371.22 (0.86 to 1.75)0.2682
 Visiting pediatric endocrinologist (n=641)20.0224841.14 (0.80 to 1.62)0.4593
Annual nursing patient load
 <200 (n=1283)13.594981(Ref) 1.0
 ≥200 (n=1910)15.5370511.00 (0.75 to 1.34)0.9885
  • *Person-years is computed as the time from the date of initial application for pump funding to the earliest date of: death, date of pump discontinuation, 19th birthday, or outmigration from Ontario.

  • ED, emergency department; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin.