Table 2

HbA1c trajectory group by demographic characteristics, smoking status, HbA1c measures and anthropometric measures at ages 26, 32 and 38. Proportions or SD in parentheses

HbA1c trajectory group
Low (N=98)Medium (N=482)High (N=313)
Male (N=457, 51.2%)47 (48.0)226 (46.9)184 (58.8)*
Low SES at age 26 (N=228, 26.9%)20 (20.8)110 (24.4)98 (32.5)†
Low SES at age 32 (N=272, 30.5%)24 (24.5)155 (32.2)93 (29.9)
Low SES at age 38 (N=169, 19.3%)8 (8.2)85 (18.0)76 (24.9)*
Smoker at age 26 (N=356, 40.0%)23 (23.7)189 (39.3)144 (46.2)‡
Smoker at age 32 (N=300, 33.6%)22 (22.5)157 (32.6)121 (38.8)§
Smoker at age 38 (N=232, 26.4%)11 (11.2)117 (24.7)104 (34.0)‡
HbA1c measures
 Mean HbA1c at age 26 mmol/mol (SD)25.9 (1.9)29.9 (2.1)33.4 (2.1)¶
 Mean HbA1c at age 32 mmol/mol (SD)28.6 (2.2)33.2 (2.1)36.7 (2.2)¶
 Mean HbA1c at age 38 mmol/mol (SD)29.6 (2.1)34.1 (2.3)38.7 (2.7)¶
 Dysglycemia at age 26 (N=2, 0.3%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.7)
 Dysglycemia at age 32 (N=27, 3.2%)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)26 (8.9)**
 Dysglycemia at age 38 (N=149, 17.5%)0 (0.0)5 (1.1)144 (48.3)**
Anthropometric measures
 Mean weight in kg at age 26 (SD)73.7 (11.3)72.8 (13.5)76.2 (16.1)††
 Mean weight in kg at age 32 (SD)77.2 (13.6)76.4 (15.2)81.0 (18.6)‡‡
 Mean weight in kg at age 38 (SD)79.7 (13.8)78.9 (16.1)83.7 (19.2)‡‡
 Mean BMI at age 26 (SD)24.8 (3.4)24.7 (3.9)25.5 (4.9)
 Mean BMI at age 32 (SD)25.6 (4.0)25.8 (4.5)26.8 (5.5)
 Mean BMI at age 38 (SD)26.7 (4.4)26.7 (4.9)27.9 (5.9)
 Mean WC in mm at age 26 (SD)795.6 (81.6)792.0 (91.6)817.7 (106.4)‡‡
 Mean WC in mm at age 32 (SD)833.9 (99.8)834.4 (105.8)863.0 (123.1)‡‡
 Mean WC in mm at age 38 (SD)851.8 (103.6)850.7 (118.2)885.8 (140.0)§§
 Mean waist-hip ratio at age 26 (SD)0.79 (0.07)0.79 (0.07)0.81 (0.07)¶
 Mean waist-hip ratio at age 32 (SD)0.82 (0.08)0.83 (0.07)0.84 (0.07)††
 Mean waist-hip ratio at age 38 (SD)0.84 (0.08)0.85 (0.08)0.87 (0.08)¶
 Mean waist-height ratio at age 26 (SD)0.46 (0.05)0.46 (0.05)0.47 (0.06)
 Mean waist-height ratio at age 32 (SD)0.48 (0.05)0.49 (0.06)0.50 (0.07)
 Mean waist-height ratio at age 38 (SD)0.49 (0.06)0.50 (0.07)0.51 (0.08)††
 High BMI group at age 26 (N=98, 11.4%)9 (9.6)47 (10.0)42 (14.0)
 High BMI group at age 32 (N=151, 17.5%)10 (10.8)70 (14.9)71 (23.4)*
 High BMI group at age 38 (N=207, 23.9%)18 (18.4)95 (20.5)94 (30.9)*
 High WC group at age 26 (N=56, 6.6%)3 (3.2)24 (5.2)29 (9.9)¶¶
 High WC group at age 32 (N=132, 15.3%)7 (7.5)66 (14.0)59 (19.5)**
 High WC group at age 38 (N=176, 20.3%)17 (17.4)82 (17.7)77 (25.3)†
 High waist-hip group at age 26 (N=54, 6.3%)5 (5.3)22 (4.7)27 (9.18)
 High waist-hip group at age 32 (N=183, 21.2%)19 (20.4)93 (19.8)71 (23.5)
 High waist-hip group at age 38 (N=294, 34.1%)28 (28.9)145 (31.4)121 (39.8)†
 High waist-height group at age 26 (N=190, 22.3%)14 (14.9)91 (19.5)85 (28.9)*
 High waist-height group at age 32 (N=327, 37.8%)30 (32.3)169 (35.9)128 (42.4)
 High waist-height group at age 38 (N=391, 45.2%)41 (41.8)196 (42.2)154 (50.7)
  • *p<0.005; χ2 test.

  • †p<0.05; χ2 test.

  • ‡p<0.001; χ2 test.

  • §p<0.01; χ2 test.

  • ¶p<0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • **p<0.001; Fisher's exact test.

  • ††p<0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • ‡‡p<0.01; Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • §§p<0.005; Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • ¶¶p<0.05; Fisher's exact test.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; SES, socioeconomic status; WC, waist circumference.