Table 2

Incremental areas under the curves (iAUCs) (0–180 min) during the three visits

Time (min)†‡Carbohydrates first (CF)Carbohydrates last (CL)Sandwich (S)
Glucose iAUC
(mmol/L×min)*
0–180372.0±50.2§173.4±27.8§¶310.08±46.0¶
Insulin iAUC
(pmol/L×min)*
0–18067850.6±6959.6§51074.2±6231.7§61541.0±7295.7
Glucagon-like peptide-1 iAUC
(pmol/L×min)*
0–180763.8±150.0§1057.4±99.4§956.1±136.3
  • *Values are expressed in SI units as mean±SEM, n=16.

  • †Blood samples were collected immediately before the meal (t=0 min) and at 30, 60, 90, and 180 min after the start of the meal.

  • ‡Intervals were measured in minutes from the start of the meal. The 30-minute time point was immediately collected after the meal was finished.

  • §Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between CF and CL.

  • ¶Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between CL and S.