Table 2

Baseline characteristics of the study participants

CharacteristicsAll available dataPropensity-matched sample
MNG
 n=801 272
NNG
 n=14 319 859
MNG
n=36 067
NNG
n=36 067
Gender, female (%)57.6352.7957.1257.42
Age (years), mean±SD75.4±13.371.3±11.474.9±13.475.1±12.7
Race (%)
 White74.9379.2475.5575.84
 Black18.1012.5817.2816.86
 Hispanic3.023.293.183.30
 Asian2.012.371.992.02
 North American Native0.490.520.520.52
 Other1.201.701.261.23
 Unknown0.260.310.220.23
27 chronic conditions from Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (%)
  Diabetes100.00100.00100.00100.00
  Hypertension85.9072.1584.8085.39
  Anemia82.6240.1380.8682.95
  IHD64.6942.9463.0063.60
  HF57.5524.5654.2554.86
  Hyperlipidemia56.1756.4356.7257.29
  Cataract52.8440.1751.7352.36
  RA/OA52.7135.2650.9951.73
  COPD48.8221.8645.5945.92
  Depression46.3121.6843.3142.95
  CKD45.4713.0841.3540.67
 Alzheimer’s disease, related disorders, or senile dementia38.279.8733.4332.05
 Stroke/TIA29.8510.9227.1226.50
 Acquired hypothyroidism27.1817.2526.4726.62
 Osteoporosis25.4911.3923.7523.64
 Atrial fibrillation24.8810.8423.2722.97
 Alzheimer’s disease18.074.2315.6414.78
 Asthma17.4210.2317.0017.39
 Glaucoma17.2213.9317.1617.39
 Benign prostatic hyperplasia15.8711.7715.6015.81
 Hip/Pelvic fracture9.962.048.067.28
 AMI7.783.527.417.34
 Colorectal cancer5.642.125.165.20
 Prostate cancer5.344.245.335.42
 Breast cancer4.693.394.554.66
 Lung cancer3.611.253.433.39
 Endometrial cancer0.950.490.860.82
  • AMI, acute myocardial infarction; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD,  chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; HF, heart failure; IHD, ischemic heart disease; MNG, malnourished group; NNG, normo-nourished group; OA, osteoarthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TIA, transient ischemic attack.