Table 2

Subgroup of children assessed at 7–9 years: maternal pregnancy and neonatal outcome data

Subgroup seen at 7 years (Adelaide) n=109Subgroup seen at 9 years (Auckland) n=99
Metformin
n=58
Insulin
n=51
P valuesMetformin
n=45
Insulin
n=54
P values
Maternal
 Weight gain between enrollment and 36 weeks (kg)1.0±2.50.7±2.40.590.4±3.21.6±2.80.07
 Supplementary insulin prescribed18 (31.0)23 (51.1)
Glycemic control from randomization until delivery *n=57n=51n=45n=54
 Mean fasting capillary glucose0.00050.60
   Tertile 1 (mean 83±5 mg/dL)16 (28.1)31 (60.8)17 (37.8)26 (48.1)
   Tertile 2 (mean 92±4 mg/dL)25 (43.9)17 (33.3)19 (42.2)19 (35.2)
   Tertile 3 (mean 106±11 mg/dL)16 (28.1)3 (5.6)9 (20)9 (16.7)
 Mean postprandial capillary glucose0.350.62
  Tertile 1 (mean 101±4 mg/dL)13 (22.8)18 (35.3)24 (53.3)29 (53.7)
  Tertile 2 (mean 112±4 mg/dL)28 (49.1)22 (43.1)13 (28.9)19 (35.2)
  Tertile 3 (mean 130±13 mg/dL)16 (28.1)11 (21.6)8 (17.8)6 (11.1)
 Mean glucose0.0020.64
  Tertile 1 (94±4 mg/dL)12 (21.1)26 (51.0)23 (51.1)31 (57.4)
  Tertile 2 (103±2 mg/dL)30 (52.6)21 (41.2)14 (31.1)17 (31.5)
  Tertile 3 (117±11 mg/dL)15 (26.3)4 (7.8)8 (17.8)6 (11.1)
  HbA1c at 36 weeks (%)5.3±0.65.4±0.40.455.7±0.55.6±0.40.18
  HbA1c at 36 weeks (mmol/mol)34±635.5±40.4539±638±40.18
 Hypertensive complications
  Gestational hypertension1 (1.7)0 (0)1.005 (11.1)3 (5.5)0.46
  Pre-eclampsia3 (5.1)2 (3.9)1.002 (4.4)0 (0)0.20
 Mode of delivery0.440.83
   Vaginal delivery33 (56.9)33 (64.7)30 (66.7)34 (63.0)
   Caesarean delivery25 (43.1)18 (35.3)15 (33.3)20 (37.0)
Neonatal
 Gestational age at birth (weeks)38.4±1.238.8±1.00.0538.4±1.338.5±1.20.75
 Gestation at birth <37 weeks6 (10.3)2 (3.9)0.285 (11.1%)6 (11.1%)1.00
 Birth weight (g)3481±5653324±4310.103284±5633238±5420.69
 Birth weight customized centile61±2950±290.05349±3045±290.59
 Birth weight below 10th percentile5 (8.6)4 (7.8)1.05 (11.1)6 (11.1)1.00
 Birth weight above 90th percentile12 (20.7)3 (5.9)0.0295 (11.1)6 (11.1)1.00
 Crown-heel length (cm)50±2.249.8±20.6150.4±2.750.0±2.70.49
 Crown-rump length (cm)34.2±1.933.8±1.60.3032.5±3.032.4±2.60.80
 Head circumference (cm)35.1±1.434.6±1.20.05634.8±1.634.5±1.70.39
 Chest circumference (cm)34.2±2.134±1.70.5333.7±2.733.4±2.50.62
 Abdominal circumference (cm)32.6±2.431.7±2.60.0932.8±3.232.2±2.90.30
 Mid-upper arm circumference (cm)11.2±1.010.8±1.00.0411.1±1.510.9±1.40.43
 Triceps skinfold thickness (mm)4.7±0.94.3±0.90.034.7±0.95.0±1.10.28
 Subscapular skinfold thickness (mm)5.1±1.24.9±1.00.444.9±1.24.9±1.10.79
 Ponderal Index (birth weight (g) × 100/crown-heel length (cm)3)2.8±0.22.7±0.20.102.6±0.32.6±0.30.60
 Infant feeding 6–8 weeks postpartum0.300.59
  Breast feeding32 (55.1)25 (49.0)25 (55.6)30 (56.6)
  Formula feeding17 (29.3)13 (25.5)5 (11.1)10 (18.9)
  Both breast and formula feeding5 (8.6)13 (25.5)14 (31.1)13 (24.5)
  Not seen4 (6.8)01 (2.2)1 (1.9)
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD or n (%).

  • *Glucose control was calculated using capillary glucose measures during treatment. Women measured fasting and 2-hour postprandial levels daily. Control was divided into tertiles with tertile 1 reflecting women with tightest control.23