Table 1

Maternal baseline characteristics at randomization to treatment in MiG: total cohort and subgroups whose offspring were assessed at age 7 years (Adelaide) and 9 years (Auckland)

Total MiG cohort n=733Subgroup whose children were seen at 7 years (Adelaide) n=109Subgroup whose children were seen at 9 years (Auckland) n=99P values
M versus I
Metformin (M) n=58Insulin (I)
n=51
P values
M versus I
M n=45I
n=54
Age (years)32.8±5.333.6±5.733.9±4.70.8134.12±5.1235.21±4.720.28
BMI (kg/m²)
 At booking (before 20 weeks’ gestation)32.1±7.931.3±7.831.9±8.30.7231.1±8.829.5±6.40.32
 At enrollment34.9±7.834.2±7.134±7.90.9335.4±11.332.0±6.30.08
Gestational age at enrollment (weeks)30.1±3.231.3±2.831.6±20.4729.9±3.629.5±3.40.55
Ethnicity (self-reported)0.170.39
 European/Caucasian343 (46.8)52 (89.7)43 (84.3)25 (55.6)21 (38.9)
 Polynesian156 (21.3)0 (0)0 (0)6 (13.3)7 (13.0)
 Indian93 (12.7)0 (0)4 (7.8)7 (15.6)16 (29.6)
 Chinese and other Southeast Asian86 (11.7)4 (6.9)2 (3.9)6 (13.3)7 (13.0)
 Other or mixed55 (7.5)2 (3.4)2 (3.9)1 (2.2)3 (5.6)
Tertiary education323 (44.1)30 (51.7)32 (62.7)0.3328 (62.2)32 (59.3)0.84
Smoking in pregnancy121 (16.5)7 (12.1)1 (2.0)0.0655 (11.1)4 (7.4)0.73
Chronic hypertension58 (7.9)7 (12.1)5 (9.8)0.777 (15.6)5 (9.3)0.37
Family history diabetes
(1st degree)
343 (46.8)17 (29.3)20 (39.2)0.3125 (55.6)35 (64.8)0.41
Fasting plasma glucose at enrollment (mg/dL)94±3288±1688±130.7895±1690±110.10
Fasting plasma glucose at enrollment (mmol/L)5.2±1.04.9±0.84.9±0.70.785.3±0.85.0±0.60.10
HbA1c at enrollment (%)5.8±0.75.4±0.55.3±0.50.765.9±0.55.8±0.50.30
HbA1c at enrollment (mmol/mol)40±835.5±534±50.7641±540±50.30
Weight gain before enrollment (kg)6.7±5.47.5±5.46.2±4.60.196.9±5.66.4±4.50.64
Paternal height (cm)176.6±8.8179.3±10177.6±7.80.34175.2±8.8176.3±7.60.50
Paternal weight (kg)88.1±18.490.0±20.988.0±130.5688.1±20.085.7±16.50.53
Paternal BMI (kg/m2)28.2±5.428.0±6.227.9±40.9028.6±5.427.4±4.40.29
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD or n (%).

  • BMI, body mass index; MiG, metformin in gestational diabetes.