Table 4

Summary of non-clinical variables by HbA1c levels (≤6.5% vs >6.5%)

VariableCategoryPatients (N)HbA1c levelP values
HbA1c≤6.5%HbA1c>6.5% (n=177)(Fisher’s test)
(n=23)
GenderMale11614 (60.9%)102 (57.6%)0.83
Female849 (39.1%)75 (42.4%)
Is your diabetes controlled?Yes/maybe12820 (87.0%)108 (61.0%)0.02*
No723 (13.0%)69 (39.0%)
Do you exercise regularly?Yes5415 (65.2%)39 (22.0%)<0.001*
No1468 (34.8%)138 (78.0%)
How often in the last year did you have to go to the hospital as your blood sugar was not controlled?0 times1156 (26.1%)98 (55.4%)0.07
1 to ≥10 times8517 (73.9%)79 (44.6%)
Do you take alcohol?No14316 (69.6%)127 (71.8%)0.81
Yes577 (30.4%)50 (28.2%)
Do you smoke?No15817 (73.9%)141 (79.7%)0.59
Yes426 (26.1%)36 (20.3%)
How often do you check your blood sugar?Once within a day to 1 month388 (34.8%)30 (16.9%)0.05
Once within a month to 1 year16215 (65.2%)147 (83.1%)
How often in the last year you forgot to take your tablet/insulin?<5 times15220 (87.0%)132 (74.6%)0.30
≥5 times483 (13.0%)45 (25.4%)
  • *P values significant at <0.05.