Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Egg ingestion in adults with type 2 diabetes: effects on glycemic control, anthropometry, and diet quality—a randomized, controlled, crossover trial
  1. Valentine Y Njike1,2,
  2. Rockiy G Ayettey1,2,
  3. Hamid Rajebi2,
  4. Judith A Treu1,2,
  5. David L Katz1,2
  1. 1Yale University Prevention Research Center, Derby, Connecticut, USA
  2. 2Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr David L Katz; davkatz7{at}


Background The inclusion of eggs as part of a healthful diet for adults with diabetes is controversial. We examined the effects of including eggs in the diet of adults with type 2 diabetes on cardiometabolic risk factors.

Methods Randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover trial of 34 adults (mean age 64.5 years; 14 postmenopausal women, 20 men) with type 2 diabetes assigned to one of two possible sequence permutations of two different 12-week treatments (two eggs/day inclusion or egg exclusion), with 6-week washout periods. For the egg inclusion phase, participants received advice from a dietitian on how to preserve an isocaloric condition relative to the egg exclusion phase. The primary outcome was glycemic control as measured by glycated hemoglobin. Secondary measures included anthropometry, blood pressure, and diet quality.

Results Compared with the exclusion of eggs in the habitual diet, the inclusion of eggs did not measurably affect glycated hemoglobin (0.01±0.5% vs −0.24±0.7%; p=0.115) and systolic blood pressure (−0.8±13.0 vs −3.0±10.0 mm Hg; p=0.438); and significantly reduced body mass index (0.06±0.8 vs −0.4±0.8 kg/m²; p=0.013) and visceral fat rating (0.2±1.1 vs −0.4±1.0; p=0.016). The inclusion of eggs in the habitual diet of diabetics significantly reduced waist circumference (−0.4±1.2 cm; p=0.004) and percent body fat (−0.7±1.8; p=0.033) from baseline.

Conclusions Short-term daily inclusion of eggs in the habitual diet of adults with type 2 diabetes does not improve glycemic control but can improve anthropometric measures.

Trial registration number NCT02052037; results.

  • A1C
  • Adult Diabetes

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors VYN designed the study, was responsible for study implementation oversight, analyzed data, wrote paper, and was responsible for final content. RGA was the project coordinator and wrote paper. HR wrote paper. JAT was the study dietitian and wrote paper. DLK designed research, wrote paper, provided critical review of the manuscript, and was responsible for final content.

  • Funding Funding for this study has been provided by the Egg Nutrition Center/American Egg Board.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Griffin Hospital Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.