Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Which foods are displaced in the diets of adults with type 2 diabetes with the inclusion of eggs in their diets? A randomized, controlled, crossover trial
  1. Valentine Y Njike,
  2. Rachel Annam,
  3. Victoria Christina Costales,
  4. Niloufarsadat Yarandi,
  5. David L Katz
  1. Yale University,Prevention Research Center,Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr David L Katz; davkatz7{at}


Background The inclusion or exclusion of specific foods from the overall diet inevitably affects other food choices, and this matter is routinely neglected in dietary guidance and nutritional epidemiology. We examined how the inclusion of eggs in the diets of type 2 diabetics affected dietary pattern.

Methods Randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover trial of 34 adults (mean age 64.5 years; 14 women, 20 men) with type 2 diabetes assigned to one of two possible sequence permutations of two different 12-week treatments (two eggs/day or egg exclusion), with 6-week washout periods. For the egg inclusion phase, participants received advice from a dietitian on how to preserve an isocaloric condition relative to the egg exclusion phase. To assess changes in dietary pattern in the diets of our study participants, we analyzed the 12 components of the 2010 Healthy Eating Index.

Results The inclusion of eggs was associated with reduced consumption of refined grains nearing statistical significance (−0.7±3.4 vs 0.7±2.2; p=0.0530). The consumption of total protein foods significantly increased from baseline (0.3±0.7; p=0.0153) with the inclusion of eggs for 12 weeks, while the consumption of dairy products significantly decreased with the exclusion of eggs from their diets (−1.3±2.9; p=0.0188).

Conclusions Eggs in the diets of type 2 diabetics may lead to increased consumption of some healthful foods and reduced consumption of some less healthful foods.

Trial registration number NCT02052037; Post-results.

  • a1c
  • adult diabetes
  • body mass index

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Contributors VYN: study design, project oversight, data analysis, data interpretation, developed manuscript draft, and approved the final manuscript. RA: assisted with development of manuscript draft. VCC: assisted in writing the manuscript and provided critical review. DLK: study design, project oversight, data interpretation, critical review of paper, and final approval.

  • Funding Funding for this study has been provided by the Egg Nutrition Center.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Participants filled out study consent form approved by IRB prior to enrollment in the study.

  • Ethics approval Griffin Hospital Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.