Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Cardiac structure and function with and without metabolic syndrome: the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (Echo-SOL)


Objective We assessed the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome is associated with adverse changes in cardiac structure and function in participants of the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (Echo-SOL).

Methods Non-diabetic Echo-SOL participants were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. Survey multivariable linear regression analyses using sampling weights were used adjusting for multiple potential confounding variables. Additional analysis was stratified according to the presence/absence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2) and the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome.

Results Within Echo-SOL, 1260 individuals met inclusion criteria (59% female; mean age 55.2 years). Compared with individuals without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome had lower medial and lateral E′ velocities (−0.4 cm/s, (SE 0.1), p=0.0002; −0.5 cm/s (0.2), p=0.02, respectively), greater E/E′ (0.5(0.2), p=0.01) and worse two-chamber left ventricular longitudinal strain (0.9%(0.3), p=0.009), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Increased left ventricular mass index (9.8 g/m2 (1.9), p<0.0001 and 7.5 g/m2 (1.7), p<0.0001), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (11.1 mL (3.0), p=0.0003 and 13.3 mL (2.7), p<0.0001), left ventricular end-systolic volume (5.0 mL (1.4), p=0.0004 and 5.7 mL (1.3) p<0.0001) and left ventricular stroke volume (10.2 mL (1.8), p<0.0001 and 13.0 mL (2.0), p<0.0001) were observed in obese individuals with and without metabolic syndrome compared with individuals with normal weight without metabolic syndrome. In sensitivity analyses, individuals with normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) and metabolic syndrome had worse left ventricular global longitudinal strain (2.1%(0.7), p=0.002) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (−3.5%(1.4), p=0.007) compared with normal-weight individuals without metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions In a sample of US Hispanics/Latinos metabolic syndrome was associated with worse left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Adverse changes in left ventricular size and function were observed in obese individuals with and without metabolic syndrome but decreased left ventricular function was also present in normal-weight individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  • echocardiography
  • metabolic syndrome
  • hispanics
  • obesity

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.