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Variations of dietary intake by glycemic status and Hispanic/Latino heritage in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)
  1. Sarah S Casagrande1,
  2. Daniela Sotres-Alvarez2,
  3. Larissa Avilés-Santa3,
  4. Matthew J O’Brien4,
  5. Cristina Palacios5,
  6. Cynthia M Pérez6,
  7. Samantha A Reina7,
  8. Xueyin Wang8,
  9. Qibin Qi8,
  10. Aida L Giachello9,
  11. Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto10,
  12. Catherine C Cowie11
  1. 1 Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
  2. 2 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  3. 3 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  4. 4 General Internal Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  5. 5 Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA
  6. 6 School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, USA
  7. 7 University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA
  8. 8 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
  9. 9 Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  10. 10 University of California, San Diego, California, USA
  11. 11 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sarah S Casagrande; scasagrande{at}


Objective A healthy diet is important for diabetes prevention and control; however, few studies have assessed dietary intake among US Hispanics/Latinos, a diverse population with a significant burden of diabetes. To address this gap in the literature, we determined intake of energy, macro/micronutrients, and vitamin supplements among Hispanics/Latinos by glycemic status and heritage.

Research design and methods Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008–2011) with complete baseline data on glycemic status and two 24-hour dietary recalls (n=13 089). Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted measures of intake were determined by glycemic status and heritage.

Results Mean age-adjusted and sex-adjusted energy intake was significantly lower among Hispanics/Latinos with diagnosed diabetes compared with those with normal glycemic status (1665 vs 1873 kcal, P<0.001). Fiber intake was higher among those with diagnosed diabetes versus normal glycemic status (P<0.01). Among those with diagnosed diabetes, energy intake was highest among those with Cuban heritage compared with most other heritage groups (P<0.01 for all, except Mexicans), but there was no difference after additional adjustment. Fiber intake was significantly lower for those of Cuban heritage (vs Dominican, Central American, and Mexican), and sodium intake was significantly higher (vs all other heritage groups) (P<0.01 for all); findings were null after additional adjustment. There was no difference in supplemental intake of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, or potassium by glycemic status.

Conclusions As part of the care of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes, attention should be made to fiber and sodium consumption.

  • hispanic/latinos
  • diabetes
  • glycemic status
  • macronutrients
  • dietary intake

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  • Contributors SSC designed the research, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, and had primary responsibility for final content. DSA and MLA-S reviewed the analysis, and edited and finalized the manuscript. MJO, CP, CMP, SAR, XW, ALG, and RAEG edited and finalized the manuscript. CCC designed the research, and edited and finalized the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert Einstein College of Medicine (N01-HC65235), Northwestern University (N01-HC65236), and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following NIH Institutes/Offices collaborated and co-funded the first phase of the study: the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases; the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. This manuscript was supported by a contract (GS10F0381L) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

  • Disclaimer The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; the National Institutes of Health; or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Data from HCHS/SOL can be accessed by submitting proposals for manuscripts through the HCHS/SOL website,

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