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Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher blood glucose levels in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes: a population-based cross-sectional study in North India
  1. Surya Prakash Bhatt1,2,3,
  2. Anoop Misra1,2,4,
  3. Seema Gulati1,2,
  4. Naamrata Singh1,2,
  5. Ravindra Mohan Pandey5
  1. 1 Diabetes Foundation (India), Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi, India
  2. 2 National Diabetes Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation (N-DOC), Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi, India
  3. 3 Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Sleep Disorders, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  4. 4 Fortis C-DOC Center of Excellence for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Endocrinology, New Delhi, India
  5. 5 Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to DrAnoopMisra; anoopmisra{at}


Background Asian Indian women are predisposed to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Relationship of vitamin D deficiency with blood glucose levels has not been explored in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes.

Objective We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among adult women with the pre-diabetes residing in North India (Delhi).

Methods This cross-sectional population-based study involved 797 women with pre-diabetes aged 20–60 years. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), extent of sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed. For purpose of analysis, serum 25(OH)D levels (nmol/L) were categorized in quintiles as follows: 0–21.5 (first quintile), 21.51–35.60 (second quintile), 35.61–46.50 (third quintile), 46.51–62.30 (fourth quintile) and >62.31 (fifth quintile).

Result The prevalence (%) of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency was 68.6, 25.9 and 5.5, respectively. Mean age (p=0.004), systolic (p=0.05) and diastolic (p=0.04) blood pressure, weight (p=0.03), BMI (p=0.04) and FBG (p=0.02) were significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency as compared with those with vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency. Unadjusted mean values of FBG were significantly decreased in fourth (p=0.02) and fifth quintiles (p=0.030) of 25(OH)D levels as compared with second quintile. Furthermore, after adjusting for age and family income FBG levels were significantly increased in first quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.012) and fifth (p=0.018) quintiles) and second quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.003) and fifth (p=0.004) quintiles) of 25(OH)D levels, respectively.

Conclusion Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher blood glucose values in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes. These findings need confirmation in case–control and prospective studies.

  • Pre-diabetes
  • metabolic syndrome
  • 25-hydroxy vitamin D
  • body mass index
  • Asian Indians

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  • Contributors AM conceived the study and contributed to the discussion and reviewed the manuscript. SPB conducted the study and wrote the manuscript. SPB, SG and NS performed laboratory analysis of samples. RMP analyzed and interpreted the data. AM is the guarantor for this manuscript.

  • Funding This study was fully supported by a grant from the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology (File No: SSD/WS/098/2010), Government of India.

  • Disclaimer The funding agency had no role in study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Parental/guardian consent obtained

  • Ethical approval Fortis C-DOC Centre of Excellence for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases and Endocrinology, Chirag Enclave, Nehru Place, New Delhi.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement There are no additional data available.

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