Objective Resting energy expenditure (REE) is linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). REE and T2DM are inherited traits. Therefore, we investigated the effect of parental T2DM on REE in normoglycemic subjects.
Methods Eighty-seven subjects with parental T2DM and 83 subjects without parental T2DM were matched in age, gender, race, BMI, weight and waist circumference. Subjects underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test; REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, analysis of variance and regression analysis.
Results The mean age was 38.8±11.3 years, 57% were females and 53% were African-Americans. The mean BMI was 28.5±6.1 kg/m2, waist circumference 91.8±15.1 cm, weight 83.9±20.3 kg, fat mass 31.0%±10.0%, mean fat-free mass (FFM) 54.4±12.9 kg. REE was significantly lower in subjects with parental diabetes, normalized REE 1364.4±263.4Kcal/day vs 1489.4±323.2 Kcal/day, p=0.006 and 29.2±5.3Kcal/kg FFM/day vs 31.9±6.0 Kcal/kg FFM/day, p=0.002. African-Americans had a lower REE compared with Caucasians 28.6±5.4Kcal/kg FFM/day vs 32.6±5.5 Kcal/kg FFM/day, p<0.0001. In a multiple regression model, ethnicity (p<0.0001), parental history of T2DM (p=0.006) and FFM (p=0.021) were independent predictors of REE.
Conclusion Compared with subjects without parental diabetes, offspring with parental T2DM had lower REE, which was more pronounced in African-Americans. This metabolic alteration could increase the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and dysglycemia.
- energy expenditure and obesity
- insulin resistance
- type 2 diabetes
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors SD-J: Principal investigator, design of study, review and revision of manuscript; guarantor. EAN: data collection, drafting and revision of manuscript; IO: data collection, review and revision of manuscript; CCO: data collection, review of manuscript; JYW: statistical analysis, review and revision of the manuscript.
Funding This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (Grants R01 DK067269, R01 DK067269-04S1), American Diabetes Association (Grant 7-07-MN-13), and the State of Tennessee (UTHSC GCRC Fund).
Disclaimer The funding sources had no role in the design and execution of the study nor in the analysis and publication of the data obtained.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Ethics approval The Institution Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement No additional data are available.
Collaborators POP-ABC Research Group: Current: SD-J, MD (Principal Investigator), Amy Brewer, MS, RD, Fatoumatta Ceesay, BS, IO, MBBS, MPH, Nkiru Umekwe, MBBS, JIW, PhD. Past members: Emmanuel Chapp-Jumbo, MBBS (2009–2011), Ruben Cuervo, MD (2006–2007), Sotonte Ebenibo, MBBS, MPH (2012–2015), Chimaroke Edeoga, MBBS, MPH (2007–2013), Nonso Egbuonu, MBBS (2007–2010), Nicoleta Ionica, MD (2007–2008), Dorota Malinowski, MD (2007–2008), Casey Provo, MS, RDN (2016-2017). Consultant: Steven Haffner, MD; Data and Safety Officer: Murray Heimberg, MD, PhD.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.