Objective Reduction of muscle mass and strength is an important treatment target for patients with type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have reported that high-intensity resistance training improves physical function; however, all patients found it difficult to perform high-intensity resistance training. Radio calisthenics, considered as therapeutic exercises to promote health in Japan, are simple exercises that can be performed regardless of age and help move the muscles and joints of the whole body effectively according to the rhythm of radio. We investigated the efficacy of radio calisthenics for muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes in this retrospective cohort study.
Research design and methods A total of 42 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was calculated as appendicular muscle mass (kg) divided by height squared (m2). We defined the change of SMI as the difference of SMI between the beginning and end of hospitalization.
Results Among 42 patients, 15 (11 men and 4 women) performed radio calisthenics. Body weights of both radio calisthenics exercisers and non-exercisers decreased during hospitalization. The change of SMI was significantly lesser in radio calisthenics exercisers than in non-exercisers (7.1±1.4 to 7.1±1.3, –0.01±0.09 vs 6.8±1.1 to 6.5±1.2, –0.27±0.06 kg/m2, p=0.016). The proportion of decreased SMI was 85.2% (23/27 patients) in non-radio calisthenics exercisers, whereas that in radio calisthenics exercisers was 46.7% (7/15 patients).
Conclusions Radio calisthenics prevent the reduction of skeletal muscle mass. Thus, radio calisthenics can be considered effective for patients with type 2 diabetes.
- radio calisthenics
- muscle mass
- type 2 diabetes
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Presented at Part of this manuscript has been published and presented in poster presentation of American Diabetes Association 79th Annual meeting of 2019 (752-P: Japanese radio calisthenics prevents reduction of skeletal muscle volume in patients with type 2 diabetes).
Contributors TK designed the study, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. TO designed the study, researched, analyzed and interpreted the data and reviewed/edited the manuscript. YH researched and interpreted the data and contributed to discussion. KI, TS, EU, MH, MA and MY researched the data and contributed to discussion. MF interpreted the data and reviewed/edited the manuscript. MF is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Disclaimer The sponsors were not involved in the study design, in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data, in the writing of this manuscript, or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Competing interests YH has received grant support from Asahi Kasei Pharma and honoraria from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma and Novo Nordisk Pharma, outside the submitted work. TS has received payment for development of educational presentation from Ono Pharmaceutical, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Astellas Pharma, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Sanofi, MSD, Kowa Pharmaceutical, Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Kissei Pharmaceutical, Novo Nordisk Pharma and Eli Lilly Japan. MH has received grant support from Asahi Kasei Pharma, payment for development of educational presentations from MSD, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Kowa and Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, and royalties from US 10,238,714 B2, outside the submitted work. EU has received personal fees from AstraZeneca, Astellas Pharma, Daiichi Sankyo, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Kowa Pharmaceutical, MSD, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Novo Nordisk Pharma, Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma and Johnson & Johnson, outside the submitted work. MA has received payment for development of educational presentation from Novo Nordisk Pharma, Abbott Japan, AstraZeneca, Kowa Pharmaceutical, Ono Pharmaceutical and Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma. MY has received payment for development of educational presentation from MSD, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Kowa, AstraZeneca, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Daiichi Sankyo, Kowa Pharmaceutical, and Ono Pharmaceutical. MF has received research support and payment for development of educational presentation from AstraZeneca, Astellas Pharma, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly Japan, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Kissei Pharmaceutical, MSD, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Kowa, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Novo Nordisk Pharma, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Sanofi, Ono Pharmaceutical, Taisho Pharmaceutical, Bayer Yakuhin, Mochida Pharmaceutical, Johnson & Johnson Medical, Nippon Chemiphar, Terumo, Teijin Pharma, and Takeda Pharmaceutical.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The Ethics Committee of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine approved this study (No RBMR-E-466-7). All people provided informed consent and written informed consent.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. The data sets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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