Table 1

Main clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes grouped by vitamin D status

25(OH)D <30 ng/mL25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mLp Value
Sex (M/F)212/32763/1130.228
Age (years)67±1373±9<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)32.1±8.128.7±5.9<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)10±1011±100.185
Systolic pressure (mm Hg)138.4±19.1137.7±18.10.683
Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)81.1±11.178.6±9.50.005
HbA1c (%)7.6±1.87.4±1.30.114
e-GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)75.6±24.173.3±17.60.220
Uric acid (mmol/L)0.43±0.70.45±0.80.845
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.3±0.51.4±0.50.097
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)2.6±0.82.8±0.80.043
TG (mmol/L)1.7±0.91.5±0.80.010
TG/HDL-C ratio1.5±1.21.2±0.90.010
Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)63.2±53.542.2±41.00.002
Serum calcium (mg/dL)9.3±0.59.3±0.80.781
Retinopathy, any degree (%)34%24%0.018
Nephropathy (%)64%53%0.020
Abnormal albuminuria (%)27%15%0.048
e-GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%)25%22%0.287
  • Continuous variables are reported as means±SD, and categorical variables as absolute or relative frequencies. Two tails Student t test or χ2 test have been employed to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively.

  • 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; BMI, body mass index; e-GFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; F, female; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; M, male; TG, triglycerides.