Table 1

Outline of the CASCADE program (as set out in the manual)

The teaching planSession activities, objectives, time guides, and resources including key information essential for the educator, learning objective for the family, and brief descriptions of each activity
Each module starts with a review of, and since, the previous session, creating an opportunity for families to highlight any changes that have taken place and to congratulate young people on successes
Module 1Focuses on the relationship between food, insulin, and BG (eg, considering the pros and cons of matching insulin to food to attain better glycemic control)
Module 2Reviews BG testing and factors influencing BG fluctuation (eg, identifying factors that cause BG to rise and fall and explore hypoglycemia definitions, reviewing symptoms according to severity)
Module 3Looks at the pros and cons of adjusting insulin (eg, a brainstorming session considers when, how, and who to contact for help managing hyperglycemia)
Module 4Addresses aspects of living with diabetes, including managing BG levels and exercise (eg, young people and families complete a ‘blueprint for success’. This marks the end of the sessions and acknowledges the steps into the future the young person has already made)
Homework tasks are given to families to consolidate learning after each module
  • BG, blood glucose; CASCADE, Child and Adolescent Structured Competencies Approach to Diabetes Education.