Table 2

Process evaluation methods and response rates

Phase of the studyMethodsPurpose of methodsResponse rates
Two-day training of site educatorsUnstructured observation of training of site educators by a member of the research teamFidelity of training6 training days observed
Participant questionnaires (completed 2 weeks after training)Description of participants
Participant experience/acceptability of training
27 participant questionnaires from 18 nurses, 8 dietitians, and 1 doctor (63% of participants)
Semistructured interviews with the two trainersBackground to intervention development; views on training daysBoth trainers
Delivery of CASCADE modules with patients/carersObservation of modules carried out by a member of research team including rating of fidelity to psychological techniques and content of manualFidelity of delivery
Experience/acceptability of delivery of program to site educators
Experience/acceptability of participation in the program by young people/parents
47 CASCADE modules observed across 13 intervention sites (12 each of modules 1, 2, and 4; 11 of module 3)
Self-complete feedback proformas for site educatorsWho delivered each module; who attended each module
Self-assessment of delivery fidelity and general feedback on each module
Site educators returned 125 feedback proformas (94% of 131 completed modules)
Following delivery of all CASCADE groupsYoung person and parent 12 and 24 month questionnaires in intervention armPerceptions of impact
Acceptability of the intervention
Process questions were completed on questionnaires by 135 young people (82%) and 121 parents (66%) at 12 months; 121 young people (66%) and 114 (63%) parents at 24 months
Semistructured interviews (audio-recorded) with site staff (nurses and dietitians), young people, and parents/carers in both trial armsDescription of standard care—including any structured education currently delivered
Intervention arm only—experiences of the intervention (training and delivery)
30 site staff (16 intervention sites; 14 control) 53 young people (32 intervention/21 control) and 52 parents were interviewed. Of the young people, 31 were female; 17 were 10–11 years old; and 36 were 12–18 years old
  • CASCADE, Child and Adolescent Structured Competencies Approach to Diabetes Education.