Table 1

Demographics and laboratory results of cohort

Controls diabetic+no retinopathy (n=256)Cases diabetic+retinopathy (n=329)p Value†
 Gender (% male)
 BMI (kg/m2)33.1±0.431.8±0.40.02
 HbA1c (%)7.8±0.19.0±0.1p<0.0001
 DM duration (years)7.2±0.513.5±0.4p<0.0001
 On insulin (%)15.638.9p<0.0001
Blood pressure
 SBP (mm  Hg)127±1.1133±1.0P<0.0001
 DBP (mm  Hg)70±0.871±0.5NS
Renal function
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.76±0.061.1±0.06p<0.0001
 Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio34±78519±69p<0.0001
 CKD-EPI eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)98.5±1.690.0±1.4p<0.0001
 C peptide (nmol/L)1.2±0.11.0±0.04p=0.0005
 Insulin (μU/mL)*13.7± 0.6 (n=211)10.1±0.6 (n=195)p<0.0001
  • Value depicted as mean±SE of the mean.

  • *Analysis for insulin was conducted in participants without exogenous insulin injection (n=406).

  • †p Value, adjusted for family structure.

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; NS, not significant; SBP, systolic blood pressure.