Table 1

Clinical characteristics according to the CES-D score in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

CES-D scorep For trend
≤910–1516–23≥24UnadjustedAge and sex adjustedMultivariate adjusted
Age (years)66.2±9.663.4±11.263.1±11.559.5±11.0<0.0001
Sex (female, %)41.9%44.0%49.2%53.6%<0.01
Duration of diabetes (years)15.4±10.316.0±10.616.0±11.115.6±10.7NSNSNS
Family history of diabetes (%)55.8%58.3%58.8%64.3%<0.05NSNS
BMI (kg/m2)23.6±3.624.2±4.124.5±5.124.6±4.2<0.0001<0.05<0.05
Obesity in Asians (BMI ≥25.0) (%)29.4%37.3%31.7%45.5%<0.0001<0.05NS
Waist circumstances (cm)85.4±9.987.0±10.987.4±10.987.1±11.9<0.001<0.01NS
Abdominal obesity in Asians (%)44.8%52.3%51.3%53.6%<0.001<0.05NS
HbA1c (%)7.38±1.007.44±1.077.63±1.177.64±1.42<0.001<0.01NS
HbA1c (mmol/mol)57±958±960±1060±13<0.001<0.01NS
Fasting serum C peptide (nmol/L)0.40±0.220.40±0.220.39±0.190.41±0.25NSNSNS
Adiponectin (μg/mL)*9.1 (8.9 to 9.3)8.9 (8.5 to 9.4)8.8 (8.2 to 9.5)9.2 (8.3 to 10.3)NSNSNS
HS-CRP (mg/L)*0.73 (0.46 to 0.51)0.53 (0.47 to 0.60)0.59 (0.49 to 0.70)0.44 (0.35 to 0.57)NSNSNS
Oral hypoglycemic agents use (%)64.4%64.9%64.6%53.6%NSNSNS
Sulfonylurea use (%)43.0%42.5%40.8%31.3%<0.05NSNS
Insulin use (%)24.9%27.1%37.1%46.4%<0.0001<0.0001<0.001
Self glucose monitoring (%)31.6%35.6%40.8%50.0%<0.0001<0.0001NS
Severe hypoglycemia (%)1.6%3.2%4.2%8.0%<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
  • Results are reported as mean±SD.

  • *Geometric means with 95% CI in brackets. Multivariate adjustments include age, sex, duration of diabetes (not used for duration of diabetes), BMI (not used for BMI), HbA1c (not used for HbA1c), insulin use (not used for insulin use), current smoking, current drinking, leisure-time physical activity, and total energy intake.

  • BMI, body mass index; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HOMA2%-B, homeostasis model assessment β-cell function; HOMA2-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; HS-CRP, high sensitivity C reactive protein.