Table 1

Study outcomes

OutcomeClosed loop with standard insulin (n=11)Closed loop with diluted insulin (n=11)p Value
Primary outcome
 Time in target 70–145 mg/dL (%)72 (54, 81)83 (70, 100)0.328
Secondary outcomes
 Mean glucose (mg/dL)122 (23)122 (24)0.993
 Time in target 70–180 mg/dL (%)85 (72, 97)98 (79, 100)0.328
Hypoglycemia
 Less than 70 mg/dL (%)1.4 (0.0, 11.6)0.0 (0.0, 1.4)0.161
 Less than 63 mg/dL (%)0.0 (0.0, 7.9)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)0.249
 Low blood glucose index (unitless)2.0 (0.6, 2.2)0.7 (0.2, 1.0)0.050
Hyperglycemia
 Greater than 145 mg/dL (%)18.8 (9.5, 44.9)13.0 (0.0, 26.9)0.477
 Greater than 180 mg/dL (%)5.1 (0.0, 26.8)0.0 (0.0, 15.3)0.953
Glucose variability
 SD of glucose (mg/dL)35 (26, 53)26 (14, 39)0.091
 CV of glucose (%)32 (24, 42)20 (13, 31)0.075
 MAGE (mg/dL)80 (0, 112)32 (0, 63)0.074
 Insulin infusion (U/h)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.2 (0.1, 0.3)0.328
 Insulin concentration (pmol/L)141 (35, 262)112 (50, 144)0.213
  • Data are mean (SD) or median (IQR).

  • Outcomes calculated between 21:00 and 8:00 and based on plasma glucose levels.

  • CV, coefficient of variation; MAGE, mean amplitude of glucose excursions.