Table 4

Linear regression models of HRQoL and individual processes-of-care in crude and adjusted models

HRQoL outcomes
Process indicators†CrudeAdjustedCrudeAdjustedCrudeAdjusted
Urine microalbumin1.20.951.80.5−0.10.05
Foot examination by physician1.10.9−1.5−1.8*−0.1*0.2
Retinal eye examination (in past 24 months)−0.7−0.2−0.51.1−0.3−0.2
Flu vaccination−0.3−0.8−4.2α−1.4−0.4**−0.4**
Hemoglobin A1c‡
 HbA1c-aware and HbA1c was checked4.81.414.9*
 HbA1c-aware and do not know if HbA1c was checked1.5−2.719.1*
 HbA1c-unaware (not aware or do not know if aware of HbA1c)6.20.513.7*
Adjusted. R2 for full model0.110.390.21
  • Crude model=all process indicator in one model, no other covariates.

  • Adjusted model=all process indicators+14 covariates (demographics, medical history and diabetes characteristics).

  • Covariates:

  • Demographics: Age, Male, Education levels, Income levels, Living companion.

  • Medical hx: hx of alcohol problems, smoker, BMI category, comorbidities, physical activity.

  • Diabetes: type 2 or undetermined, on insulin, DM complications, DM over 10 years.

  • *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01; αp≤0.001.

  • †Reference: no care received for individual process-of-care.

  • ‡Reference: HbA1c-aware and did not receive HbA1c screen/check.

  • HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HRQoL, health-related quality of life.