Table 2

Multiple logistic regression analyses showing the association of serum 25(OH)D levels with the presence of the composite microvascular end point, inclusive of diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy

Regression model 1Regression model 2
OR95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp Value
25(OH)D (ng/mL)0.7230.599 to 0.8710.0010.7580.607 to 0.9470.015
Sex (M vs F)2.4301.651 to 3.577<0.0012.3151.443 to 3.7150.001
Age (years)1.9771.559 to 2.507<0.0012.0131.473 to 2.750<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)1.1800.927 to 1.5020.1801.0860.788 to 1.4970.616
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)1.2631.001 to 1.5940.049
HbA1c (%)1.6031.219 to 2.108 0.001
TG/HDL-C ratio1.0720.842 to 1.3640.573
Diabetes duration (years)2.3411.741 to 3.147<0.001
Season measurement (winter)1.4740.934 to 2.3280.096
  • A composite microvascular complication end point was present in 401 patients. All continuous variables included in the two regression models were modeled for each SD increase.

  • 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; BMI, body mass index; F, female; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; M, male; TG, triglyceride.