Table 3

Multiple linear regression models with patient activation (PAM-13) as a dependent variable, and self-stigma, self-efficacy, depression symptoms, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as independent variables (n=209)

 Model 1*Model 2*
Regression coefficient (SE)95% CIStandardized partial regression coefficientp ValuesRegression coefficient (SE)95% CIStandardized partial regression coefficientp Values
Constant65.80 (8.68)<0.00176.64 (9.08)<0.001
Self-stigma‡−0.13 (0.04)(−0.20 to −0.05)−0.230.001
Self-efficacy§0.57 (0.16)(0.26 to 0.88)0.25<0.0010.44 (0.16)(0.12 to 0.75)0.190.007
Depression symptoms¶−0.34 (0.15)(−0.64 to −0.04)−0.160.027−0.23 (0.15)(−0.53 to 0.07)−0.110.131
  • R2, adjusted coefficient of determination.

  • *Model adjusted for sex (male), age (years), body mass index (kg/m2), diabetes duration (months), injection therapy (yes), number of diabetes-related complications, hemoglobin A1c (%), education (years), and marital status (married).

  • †p<0.001.

  • ‡Self-Stigma Scale (SSS-J).

  • §General Self-efficacy Scale.

  • ¶Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).

  • PAM-13, Patient Activation Measure.