Table 1

General characteristics in males and females at baseline

ValueOverall (n=334)Male (n=125)Female (n=209)p For difference
Age (year)57.2±10.057.2±11.057.2±9.40.96
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.0±0.46.0±0.46.0±0.40.95
2 h glucose (mmol/L)5.9±1.66.0±1.85.9±1.40.70
LDL-c (mmol/L)2.96±0.762.84±0.743.03±0.770.02
HDL-c (mmol/l)1.40±0.341.27±0.311.48±0.34<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.09±0.944.89±0.945.21±0.920.002
Triglycerides (mmol/L)*1.42 (0.99–1.93)1.56 (1.15–2.19)1.33 (0.93–1.84)0.005
Waist circumference (cm)82.2±9.185.9±8.980.1±8.5<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)134.4±19.6136.0±19.8133.4±19.40.25
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)84.6±11.586.4±12.183.6±11.00.03
Physical activity (%)0.41
 Inactive36.840.034.9
 Active63.260.065.1
Alcohol use (%)<0.001
 Currently14.130.44.3
 Formerly2.76.40.5
 Never83.263.295.2
Smoking status (%)<0.001
 Current smoker18.946.42.4
 Former smoker4.512.00
 Never smoked76.641.697.6
Educational background (%)<0.001
 Primary education59.345.667.5
 Secondary education27.224.828.7
 Tertiary education13.529.63.8
  • Results are given mean±SD or n (%).

  • *Values of fasting triglycerides did not follow Gaussian distribution, thus medium and interquartile ranges were used instead of mean and SD to describe central and discrete tendency.

  • HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.