Table 3

Association between activity measures and incident type 2 diabetes in all participants (A) and (B) stratified by race/ethnicity

(A) HR among all participants(B) HR by race/ethnicity—model 1† adjusted
Activity measures*UnadjustedModel 1†NHWCAAAHA
Walking pace (miles/hour)
 None or casual (<2 mph)RefRefRefRefRefRef
 Average (2–4 mph)0.70 (0.59 to 0.84)0.76 (0.64 to 0.91)0.56 (0.40 to 0.78)0.88 (0.51 to 1.52)0.80 (0.58 to 1.11)0.93 (0.66 to 1.31)
 Brisk or striding (>4 mph)0.59 (0.47 to 0.74)0.67 (0.54 to 0.84)0.52 (0.35 to 0.77)0.46 (0.20 to 1.06)0.79 (0.54 to 1.16)0.90 (0.56 to 1.44)
 p for trend‡p<0.0001p<0.001p=0.07p=0.18p=0.55
Exercise PA
 Quartile 1RefRefRefRefRefRef
 Quartile 20.95 (0.78 to 1.17)1.02 (0.83 to 1.25)1.03 (0.71 to 1.50)1.41 (0.79 to 2.50)1.06 (0.72 to 1.58)0.80 (0.54 to 1.19)
 Quartile 30.79 (0.63 to 0.98)0.86 (0.69 to 1.07)0.54 (0.35 to 0.83)1.17 (0.62 to 2.19)1.14 (0.77 to 1.68)0.92 (0.61 to 1.39)
 Quartile 40.73 (0.59 to 0.91)0.79 (0.63 to 0.98)0.74 (0.50 to 1.10)0.76 (0.35 to 1.65)0.89 (0.59 to 1.33)0.76 (0.49 to 1.17)
 p for trend‡p<0.01p<0.01p=0.59p=0.54p=0.32
Moderate–vigorous PA
 Quartile 1RefRefRefRefRefRef
 Quartile 20.74 (0.59 to 0.92)0.78 (0.63 to 0.97)0.56 (0.37 to 0.84)0.70 (0.40 to 1.23)0.98 (0.65 to 1.49)1.02 (0.67 to 1.55)
 Quartile 30.77 (0.62 to 0.95)0.78 (0.63 to 0.97)0.71 (0.48 to 1.03)1.06 (0.59 to 1.93)0.94 (0.63 to 1.42)0.70 (0.44 to 1.09)
 Quartile 40.88 (0.71 to 1.08)0.84 (0.68 to 1.04)0.73 (0.49 to 1.08)0.60 (0.27 to 1.33)0.95 (0.64 to 1.41)0.99 (0.65 to 1.51)
 p for trend‡p=0.29p=0.53p=0.40p=0.87p=0.28
Vigorous PA§
 NoneRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Any0.77 (0.65 to 0.91)0.79 (0.66 to 0.95)0.65 (0.48 to 0.89)0.94 (0.54 to 1.65)0.88 (0.64 to 1.22)0.87 (0.60 to 1.25)
Leisure sedentary behavior (hours/day)
 0 to 2RefRefRefRefRefRef
 2.01 to 41.20 (0.99 to 1.45)1.21 (1.00 to 1.48)2.03 (1.38 to 2.98)0.75 (0.45 to 1.26)0.98 (0.67 to 1.44)1.14 (0.80 to 1.63)
 4.01 to 61.47 (1.17 to 1.84)1.43 (1.13 to 1.80)2.11 (1.34 to 3.34)1.46 (0.76 to 2.80)1.32 (0.88 to 1.99)1.24 (0.80 to 1.94)
 >61.71 (1.32 to 2.20)1.65 (1.26 to 2.14)3.04 (1.85 to 5.00)1.55 (0.64 to 3.79)1.38 (0.90 to 2.13)1.25 (0.66 to 2.37)
 p for trend‡p<0.0001p<0.0001p=0.26p=0.09p=0.18
TV watching (hours/day)
 0 to 2RefRefRefRefRefRef
 2.01 to 41.29 (1.09 to 1.54)1.18 (0.99 to 1.41)1.12 (0.81 to 1.56)1.15 (0.67 to 1.96)1.23 (0.89 to 1.69)1.22 (0.87 to 1.69)
 4.01 to 61.64 (1.28 to 2.11)1.43 (1.11 to 1.85)1.50 (0.91 to 2.49)1.50 (0.52 to 4.34)1.47 (0.98 to 2.21)1.55 (0.92 to 2.63)
 >63.14 (1.62 to 6.09)2.68 (1.38 to 5.21)4.54 (1.42 to 14.49)NA2.99 (1.30 to 6.85)NA
 p for trend‡p<0.0001p<0.01p=0.18p<0.05p=0.07
Activity score¶
 Category 1RefRefRefRefRefRef
 Category 20.72 (0.52 to 1.01)0.75 (0.54 to 1.05)0.41 (0.23 to 0.73)0.60 (0.24 to 1.48)0.99 (0.54 to 1.82)1.30 (0.61 to 2.75)
 Category 30.68 (0.50 to 0.93)0.73 (0.53 to 0.99)0.52 (0.32 to 0.85)0.47 (0.20 to 1.11)0.89 (0.50 to 1.59)1.05 (0.51 to 2.18)
 Category 40.70 (0.53 to 0.94)0.72 (0.54 to 0.96)0.39 (0.24 to 0.64)0.50 (0.23 to 1.13)1.10 (0.65 to 1.86)0.99 (0.49 to 1.99)
 Category 50.73 (0.54 to 0.99)0.75 (0.55 to 1.02)0.45 (0.27 to 0.75)0.78 (0.34 to 1.77)1.04 (0.58 to 1.87)0.90 (0.44 to 1.87)
 Category 60.51 (0.37 to 0.73)0.50 (0.36 to 0.72)0.26 (0.14 to 0.49)0.45 (0.16 to 1.24)0.71 (0.37 to 1.38)0.72 (0.33 to 1.54)
 Category 70.57 (0.39 to 0.85)0.55 (0.36 to 0.82)0.30 (0.14 to 0.63)0.49 (0.13 to 1.85)0.74 (0.34 to 1.58)0.84 (0.37 to 1.90)
 p for trend*p<0.01p<0.01p=0.49p=0.56p<0.05
  • Exercise PA quartile ranges (MET-hours/week) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity.

  • Overall: quartile 1 (0.00–2.63), quartile 2 (2.64–14.00), quartile 3 (14.01–34.63), quartile 4 (34.64–621).

  • NHW: quartile 1 (0.00–5.25), quartile 2 (5.26–17.50), quartile 3 (17.51–36.75), quartile 4 (36.76–420).

  • CA: quartile 1 (0.00–0.00), quartile 2 (0.00–12.25), quartile 3 (12.26–24.50), quartile 4 (24.51–210).

  • AA: quartile 1 (0.00–1.75), quartile 2 (1.76–15.25), quartile 3 (15.26–36.63), quartile 4 (36.64–621).

  • HA: quartile 1 (0.00–0.00), quartile 2 (0.00–10.50), quartile 3 (10.51–28.50), quartile 4 (28.51–367.50).

  • Moderate–vigorous PA quartile ranges (MET-hours/week) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity.

  • Overall: quartile 1 (0.00–34.25), quartile 2 (34.26–68.75), quartile 3 (68.76–125.5), quartile 4 (125.51–1722.0).

  • NHW: quartile 1 (0–38.50), quartile 2 (38.51–70.50), quartile 3 (70.51–120.00), quartile 4 (120.01–942.5).

  • CA: quartile 1 (0.00–23.25), quartile 2 (23.26–44.38), quartile 3 (44.39–84.25), quartile 4 (84.26–504).

  • AA: quartile 1 (0.00–36.75), quartile 2 (36.76–77.08), quartile 3 (77.09–142.88), quartile 4 (142.89–1722).

  • HA: quartile 1 (0.00–32.00), quartile 2 (32.01–74.88), quartile 3 (74.89–139.13), quartile 4 (139.14–751).

  • *Activity measures in MET-hours/week, unless noted.

  • †Model 1: adjusted for age, race, gender, education, current occupation status, study site, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, and current hypertension medication usage (except when stratified by race, where race is not included as a covariate).

  • ‡The p for trend calculated using the log-rank test.

  • §Any vigorous activity number of participants (any vs none): overall: 1914 vs 3915 participants, NHW: 984 vs 1441 participants, CA: 171 vs 520 participants, AA: 440 vs 1063 participants, HA: 319 vs 891 participants.

  • ¶PA score was created by coding quartiles of moderate-to-vigorous PA 1 (lowest quartile) to 4 (highest quartile) and reverse coding leisure sedentary behavior 3 (lowest quartile) to 0 (highest quartile).

  • AA, African-American; CA, Chinese-American; HA, Hispanic-American; MET, metabolic equivalents of task; NA, not available; NHW, non-Hispanic white; PA, physical activity; TV, television.