Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of study cohorts

Demographic and clinical characteristicsCohort 1
No medication
Cohort 2
NIAD initiators
Cohort 3
Basal insulin initiators
Cohort 4
Prandial/mixed insulin initiators
Number of patients597 664342 51199 57862 876
Age (mean (SD) (years))59.1 (13.9)56.2 (12.1)57.8 (12.2)59.1 (13.2)
Gender (%)
Geographic region (%)
 North Central29.927.429.029.4
Insurance plan type (%)
 POS (includes plans w/o capitation)
 Other (basic/major medical, CHDP, HDHP)
Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (mean (SD))1.8 (1.5)1.6 (1.4)2.3 (1.9)2.5 (2.1)
Microvascular and macrovascular complications (%)
 Diabetic neuropathy6.77.414.816.8
 Renal disease9.87.416.019.7
 Ischemic heart disease16.312.920.223.4
 Disorders of lipid metabolism42.340.940.138.7
  • CHDP, Child Health and Disability Prevention; EPO, exclusive provider organization; HDHP, high-deductible health plan; HMO, house in multiple occupation; NIAD, non-insulin antidiabetic drug; POS, point of service; PPO, preferred provider organization.