Table 2

Logistic regression models to show predictors of dilated eye examination within the past 12 months from the Ocular SOL (2011–2013)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5Final model
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Predisposing factors (traditional)
Age group (years)
 40–54REFREFREFREFREFREF
 55–640.95 (0.48 to 1.86)0.85 (0.39 to 1.82)0.94 (0.37 to 2.38)0.63 (0.21 to 1.87)0.79 (0.38 to 1.65)0.82 (0.40 to 1.65)
 65 and older4.24 (1.90 to 9.46)5.83 (2.51 to 13.54)3.02 (1.27 to 7.16)1.35 (0.43 to 4.29)2.43 (1.09 to 5.39)2.62 (1.22 to 5.60)
Gender
 WomenREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Men1.34 (0.67 to 2.65)
Hispanic Latino background
 CubanREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Central/South American0.80 (0.43 to 1.49)
 Other0.78 (0.18 to 3.34)
Marital status
 SingleREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Married or living with partner1.05 (0.37 to 3.01)
 Separated/divorced/widowed0.91 (0.26 to 3.19)
Educational attainment
 No high school degree/GEDREFREFREFREFREFREF
 High school degree/GED0.33 (0.12 to 0.91)0.31 (0.10 to 0.95)0.43 (0.13 to 1.40)0.42 (0.08 to 2.26)0.31 (0.10 to 1.00)0.30 (0.10 to 0.96)
 Greater than a high school degree/GED1.39 (0.63 to 3.05)1.47 (0.70 to 3.09)1.92 (0.87 to 4.23)4.87 (1.04 to 22.79)1.48 (0.71 to 3.11)1.43 (0.69 to 2.98)
Employment status
 EmployedREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Retired, not currently employed1.59 (0.57 to 4.40)
 Unemployed1.32 (0.67 to 2.61)
Predisposing factors (vulnerable)
Place of birth
 Foreign bornREFREFREFREFREFREF
 USA born (including territories)0.99 (0.08 to 12.05)
Years lived in USA (if foreign born)
 ≤5REFREFREFREFREFREF
 6–150.76 (0.24 to 2.35)1.16 (0.36 to 3.79)
 >151.78 (0.53 to 5.98)1.77 (0.49 to 6.31)
SASH Language subscale1.49 (0.39 to 5.72)
SASH Ethnic Social Relations subscale1.23 (0.52 to 2.93)
Enabling factors
Health insurance
 Currently insuredREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Currently uninsured0.49 (0.18 to 1.33)0.27 (0.07 to 1.00)0.37 (0.15 to 0.88)0.34 (0.14 to 0.83)
 Never been insured0.37 (0.11 to 1.25)0.11 (0.03 to 0.37)0.21 (0.07 to 0.58)0.19 (0.07 to 0.51)
Vision insurance (not health)
 YesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 No0.56 (0.18 to 1.72)
Household income
 <$20 000REFREFREFREFREFREF
 $20 001–$40 0000.81 (0.37 to 1.81)
 >$40 0000.96 (0.25 to 3.72)
Difficulty communicating with a healthcare provider in the past 12 months
 YesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 No0.71 (0.17 to 2.92)
 Did not see provider past 12 months0.56 (0.15 to 2.12)
Could not get needed healthcare in previous 12 months because of cost
 YesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 No0.92 (0.32 to 2.71)
Need factors
Mean SF-12 Physical Health Score0.99 (0.95 to 1.04)
Mean SF-12 Mental Health Score0.97 (0.92 to 1.02)
6-Item Neurocognitive Score (continuous)0.70 (0.37 to 1.33)
Word fluency score (continuous)0.98 (0.90 to 1.05)
Digital symbol score (continuous)0.98 (0.92 to 1.05)
Self-reported chronic diseases
 NoneREFREFREFREFREFREF
 One3.42 (0.59 to 19.74)0.82 (0.23 to 2.86)
 Two or more3.34 (0.79 to 14.11)1.63 (0.41 to 6.53)
Smoking status
 NeverREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Former1.27 (0.52 to 3.09)
 Current1.63 (0.43 to 6.15)
NIAAA risky alcohol use
 Non-drinkerREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Low-risk drinker2.27 (0.75 to 6.89)
 At-risk drinker1.00 (0.19 to 5.30)
Meets 2008 physical activity guidelines
 YesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 No1.56 (0.53 to 4.62)
A1C (continuous)1.00 (0.97 to 1.02)
Self-reported visual impairment
 Excellent/goodREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Fair1.85 (0.62 to 5.51)
 Poor/very poor2.33 (0.41 to 13.35)
NEI-VFQ composite score1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)
Ocular knowledge factors
Self-reported diabetes at baseline
 NoREFREFREFREFREFREF
 Yes1.17 (0.47 to 2.92)
General eye knowledge summary scale0.99 (0.81 to 1.22)
Heard/seen something about eye health past 12 months from various sources
 No sourcesREFREFREFREFREFREF
 One source1.66 (0.63 to 4.40)1.57 (0.62 to 3.97)
 Two or more sources3.10 (1.39 to 6.94)2.82 (1.26 to 6.28)
Heard of diabetic retinopathy
 NoREFREFREFREFREF
 Yes0.82 (0.41 to 1.65)
  • Ocular SOL, Ocular Study of Latinos; NEI-VFQ, National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire; SASH, Short Acculturation Score for Hispanics/Latinos.