Table 1

Employee characteristics by engagement in recommended preventive behaviors (n=82)

Characteristic (N (%) or median (IQR))Engaged* (n=44)Not engaged (n=38)p Value†
 Median age51 (41–57)50 (36–55)0.62
 Female33 (75.0)26 (68.4)0.51
 Minority race‡7 (15.9)13 (34.2)0.05
 Hispanic ethnicity0 (0.0)2 (5.3)0.21
 College education23 (52.3)26 (68.4)0.14
 Median income§$80 000 (55 000–125 000)$65 000 (45 000–95 000)0.32
 Previous pre-diabetes diagnosis18 (40.9)10 (27.0)0.19
Potential behavioral mediators
 Knowledge that T2DM is preventable38 (86.4)28 (75.7)0.26
 Estimated risk of getting T2DM40% (20–60)60% (40–80)0.02
 Level of importance of avoiding T2DM¶10 (9–10)9 (7–10)0.01
 Level of motivation to avoid T2DM¶9 (7.5–10)7 (5–8)<0.001
Locus of motivation to prevent T2DM
 Autonomous**6.3 (5.5–6.9)5.8 (4.8–6.6)0.02
 Controlled**4.4 (3.5–5.5)3.7 (2.5–4.2)0.02
 Amotivation**2.0 (1.3–3.0)2.0 (1.3–3.0)0.74
 Relative autonomous motivation index††1.8 (0.8–2.7)2.0 (0.7–2.9)0.80
Perceived competence‡‡
 Lose weight4.5 (4.0–5.8)4.5 (3.3–5.7)0.44
 Increase physical activity5.0 (4.0–6.0)4.3 (3.0–6.0)0.07
 Ask about pharmacotherapy6.0 (5.0–7.0)6.0 (4.3–7.0)0.55
 Participate in wellness programs5.7 (4.0–6.3)5.0 (3.3–6.0)0.26
 Patient activation score§§70.2 (65.5–77.7)63.1 (55.6–67.8)0.002
  • *Engagement defined as (1) currently trying to lose weight and reporting at least 150 min of at least moderate level physical activity in the past 7 days, (2) having talked with one's healthcare provider about pharmacotherapy for T2DM prevention since the screening, or (3) having attended a Diabetes Prevention Program in the past 30 days.

  • †From Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables.

  • ‡Defined as any race other than White.

  • §Income data collected in categories. For analyses, each participant's income was coded as the midpoint of the annual household income range they indicated.

  • ¶Measured on a scale of 1–10. Higher scores indicate greater levels.

  • **Measured on a scale of 1–7 using the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ). Higher scores indicate greater levels of each dimension.

  • ††Autonomous motivation score minus controlled motivation score. Both measured using the TSRQ.

  • ‡‡Perceived competence to engage in each behavior measured on a scale of 1–7 using the Perceived Competence Scale. Higher scores indicate greater levels of perceived competence to engage in that behavior.

  • §§Measured on a scale of 0–100 using the Patient Activation Measure. Higher scores indicate greater levels of activation.

  • T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.