Table 1

Distribution of sample characteristics and association with cardiovascular disease (n=2075)

CharacteristicsTotal
n=2075 (%)
Cardiovascular disease
n (%)
OR (95% CI)
p Value
Yes
293 (14.1)
No
1782 (85.9)
Sex*
 Female1119 (53.9)118 (10.5)1001 (89.5)
 Male956 (46.1)175 (18.3)781 (81.7)1.90 (1.48 to 2.44)
0.000
Age (years)*
 18–50376 (18.1)11 (2.9)365 (97.1)
 51–701139 (54.9)969 (85.1)5.82 (3.13 to 10.84)
0.000
 >70560 (27.0)170 (14.9)448 (80.0)8.30 (4.40 to 15.65)
 Mean (SD)62.1 (12.8)112 (20.0)0.000
Years with diabetes*
 <5705 (34.0)59 (8.4)646 (91.6)
 5–15925 (44.6)123 (13.3)802 (86.7)1.68 (1.21 to 2.33)
0.002
 >15445 (21.4)111 (24.9)334 (75.1)3.64 (2.58 to 5.12)
0.000
 Mean (SD)9.9 (8.8)
BMI (kg/m2)
 ≤24.9288 (13.9)46 (16.0)242 (84.0)
 25–29.9827 (39.9)127 (15.4)700 (84.6)0.95 (0.66 to 1.38)
0.804
 ≥30960 (46.3)120 (12.5)840 (87.5)0.75 (0.52 to 1.09)
0.129
 Mean (SD)30.0 (5.76)
Systolic blood pressure†
 ≤1301195 (57.6)182 (15.2)1013 (84.8)
 131–140366 (17.6)51 (13.9)315 (86.1)0.90 (0.64 to 1.26)
0.543
 >140514 (24.8)60 (11.7)454 (88.3)0.74 (0.54 to 1.00)
0.054
 Mean (SD)132.4 (19.3)
Diastolic blood pressure†
 <801103 (53.2)142 (12.9)961 (87.1)
 80–90790 (38.1)126 (15.9)664 (84.1)1.28 (0.99 to 1.67)
0.059
 >90182 (8.8)25 (13.7)157 (86.3)1.08 (0.68 to 1.70)
0.749
 Mean (SD)75.0 (9.8)
Pulse pressure†
 10–601456 (70.2)217 (14.9)1239 (85.1)
 >60619 (29.8)76 (12.3)543 (87.7)0.79 (0.60 to 1.06)
0.117
 Mean (SD)57.4 (18.22)
Total cholesterol†, ‡
 <200913 (73.5)141 (15.4)772 (84.6)
 ≥200330 (26.5)53 (16.1)277 (83.9)1.05 (0.74 to 1.48)
0.791
 Mean (SD)177.6 (45.9)
HDL cholesterol†, ‡, §
 Low HDL1185 (96.1)178 (15.0)1007 (85.0)
 High HDL48 (3.9)9 (18.8)39 (81.3)1.31 (0.62 to 2.74)
0.481
 Mean (SD)4.2 (13.3)
LDL cholesterol†, ‡
 <10040 (3.2)7 (17.5)33 (82.5)
 ≥1001193 (96.8)180 (15.1)1013 (84.9)0.84 (0.37 to 1.92)
0.676
 Mean (SD)680.9 (371.8)
Non-HDL†, ‡
 <130185 (15.0)24 (13.0)161 (87.0)
 ≥1301048 (85.0)163 (15.6)885 (84.4)1.24 (0.78 to 1.96)
0.368
 Mean (SD)173.4 (46.8)
Triglyceride†, ‡, ¶
 <1501227 (99.2)189 (15.4)1038 (84.6)
 ≥15010 (0.8)1 (10.0)9 (90.0)0.61 (0.08 to 4.85)
1.000
 Mean (SD)4.97 (23.0)
Urine microalbumin*, †
 ≤30541 (81.0)48 (8.9)493 (91.0)
 >30127 (19.0)29 (22.8)98 (77.2)3.04 (1.83 to 5.06)
0.000
 Mean (SD)36.5 (148.8)
HbA1c (%)*
 <7822 (47.3)65 (7.9)757 (92.1)
 ≥7915 (52.7)158 (17.3)757 (82.7)2.4 (1.80 to 3.30)
0.000
 Mean (SD)7.6 (1.8)
  • *p value <0.05.

  • †The units are mg/dL.

  • ‡Sample size variation due to missing data.

  • §Low HDL cholesterol: males <40; females <50; high HDL cholesterol: males ≥40; females ≥50.

  • ¶Expected count <5. Fisher's exact test used.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.