Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

VariableCalorie regulated/walnuts (N=53)No calorie regulated/walnuts (N=49)p Value
Age (years)56.5±11.753.3±11.10.15
2010 Healthy Eating Index score57.1±17.454.0±15.70.36
Total vegetables*3.7±1.53.4±1.60.23
Greens and beans*2.3±2.42.0±2.30.52
Total fruit†2.7±2.02.7±2.00.92
Whole fruit‡3.0±2.23.0±2.30.99
Whole grains4.1±3.93.0±3.60.17
Total protein foods¶3.8±1.64.3±1.30.10
Seafood and plant protein foods¶,**2.5±2.22.4±2.40.91
Fatty acids††4.2±3.84.6±3.80.60
Refined grains6.8±3.47.3±3.30.41
Empty calories‡‡13.9±5.513.8±6.10.95
Total calories2054.7±788.61892.8±867.50.33
  • *Includes any beans and peas not counted as total protein foods.

  • †Includes 100% fruit juice.

  • ‡Includes all forms except juice.

  • §Includes all milk products, such as fluid milk, yogurt, and cheese, and fortified soy beverages.

  • ¶Beans and peas are included here (and not with vegetables) when the total protein foods standard is otherwise not met.

  • **Includes seafood, nuts, seeds, soy products (other than beverages) as well as beans and peas counted as total protein foods.

  • ††Ratio of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

  • ‡‡Calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars; threshold for counting alcohol is >13 g/1000 kcal.