Table 1

Participant characteristics

CharacteristicCT2D-O
n (W/M)4/44/3
Age (years)24.6±1.126.0±2.1
Height (cm)170.3±3.1171.2±3.8
Weight (kg)59.9±3.168.6±5.0
BMI (kg/m2)20.6±0.423.2±0.7*
LBM (kg)44.7±3.247.2±4.5
AMMI (kg/m2)6.9±0.47.4±0.5
Trunk fat mass (kg)5.7±0.88.9±1.4
Estimated visceral adipose tissue (g)148±47322±198
Body fat (%)21.3±2.927.6±2.6
Waist circumference (cm)70.6±2.076.3±3.3
Hip circumference (cm)90.2±2.395.2±1.6
Waist/hip0.78±0.020.80±0.03
2 Hours OGTT plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.6±0.45.3±0.4
OGTT net glucoseAUC (mg/dL/120 min)3573±9672578±768
OGTT net insulinAUC (µU/mL/120 min)4594±9695544±828
Matsuda-ISI index8.94±1.346.23±0.91
HOMA-IR index1.1±0.21.4±0.2
HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol)5.1±0.1 (32±1)5.5±0.2 (37±2)*
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.64±0.070.56±0.07
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.36±0.084.07±0.28
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.78±0.111.57±0.22
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.29±0.122.25±0.14
Energy intake (kcal/day)2081±1531990±188
Protein intake (g/day)86.8±6.680.0±8.5
REE (kcal/day)1369±1131511±108
npRQ0.82±0.010.80±0.01
Fat oxidation (mg/min)46.4±5.360.6±5.9
Glucose oxidative Rd (mg/min)64.5±7.860.5±8.6
Glucose non-oxidative Rd (mg/min)75.4±9.081.2±10.3
  • Data are mean ± SEM.

  • *p<0.05 vs C, by independent samples t-test.

  • AMMI, appendicular muscle mass index; npRQ, non-protein respiratory quotient; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; REE, resting energy expenditure.