Table 1

Clinical characteristics and laboratory data in patients with diabetes classified by stage of nephropathy

Stage of diabetic nephropathy1 (N=1297)2 (N=317)3 (N=120)4 (N=251)Dialysis (N=184)Kidney transplantation (N=43)
Men (%)52.865.6*68.3*62.2*69.0*60.5
Age (years)59.0±13.964.0±12.2*62.5±14.1*66.7±13.3*60.4±12.056.2±9.2
Type 1 diabetes (%)21.78.5*10.87.6*12.027.9
Diabetes duration (years)17.2±10.519.5±10.9*20.0±11.6*21.5±11.1*23.8±10.9*26.2±8.8*
Oral hypoglycemic agents (%)61.574.5*70.057.449.5*30.2*
Injection agents (%)48.348.971.7*71.7*69.6*97.7*
Antihypertensive agents (%)36.268.5*84.2*81.7*28.87.0*
Antilipemic agents (%)38.242.350.858.2*24.5*16.3*
Retinopathy (%)29.853.6*61.7*69.7*81.0*83.7*
Neuropathy (%)53.562.8*75.8*78.9*78.0*60.5
Cardiac disease (%)10.316.720.025.9*32.1*16.3
Stroke (%)
Gangrene (%)
HbA1c (%)7.4±1.17.7±1.2*8.0±1.6*7.2±1.47.1±1.3*7.8±1.5
Urinary ACR (mg/g)7.9 (7.6–8.2)81.5* (75.6–87.9)912.6* (784.5 to 1061.8)631.8* (558.6 to 958.7)NANA
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.76±0.180.90±0.26*1.05±0.32*2.96±1.56*NANA
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)74.7±17.365.5±19.6*58.9±24.6*19.6±7.3*NANA
  • Binary and continuous data were expressed as percentage and mean±SD or geometric mean (95% CI), and compared using Dunn's multiple comparison test using rank sums and Dunnett's multiple comparison test, respectively. Injection agents included insulin and GLP-1 analogs.

  • Asterisk (*) indicates statistical significance versus stage 1.

  • ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GLP-1, glucagon-like-peptide1; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; NA, not available.