Table 3

Cytokine production by lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers in metabolically healthy individuals with obesity and subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes*

Cytokines Stage 0(n=10) Stage 2(n=9)
PHA (T cell mitogen)
IL-2 (pg/ml)4141±20791572±1009†
IL-6 (pg/ml)‡2994±2260979±358†
IL-10 (pg/ml)561±265600±137
TNF-α (pg/ml)2144±7361353±660†
IFN-γ (pg/ml)6144±60945781±3493
LPS (B and antigen-presenting cell stimulant)
IL-1β (pg/ml317±155371±183
IL-6 (pg/ml)11 463±41328419 ± 2241¶
IL-10 (pg/ml)624±374415±245
TNF-α (pg/ml)‡2380±37881052±483
IFN-γ (pg/ml)‡184±203352±316
IgG (ng/ml)‡,**807±290874±248
CRP (mg/l)3.6±3.15.2±3.6
IL-6 (pg/ml)‡11±184±2
IgG (mg/ml)‡7771±115406514±1397
  • *Values are presented as mean±SD.

  • †indicates mean within a row that is significantly different from the stage 0 obesity group using one-way ANOVA (p<0.05).

  • ‡Analysis was performed on log-transformed values.

  • §Significant effect of sex in the stage 2 obesity group (p<0.10).

  • ¶Indicates a trend at p=0.080.

  • **Significant correlation with age (n=19, p<0.05) and one-way ANOVA analysis adjusted for age as a confounding factor.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; CRP, C reactive protein; IFN-γ, interferon γ; IL, interleukin; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; PHA, phytohaemagglutinin; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor α.