Table 1

Distribution of a selection of matching and non-matching covariates at cohort entry

PIO exposed
n=56 337 n (%)
Non-PIO exposed
n=56 337 n (%)
Age at CED (years)
 40–496728 (11.94)5608 (9.95)
 50–5914 881 (26.41)12 618 (22.40)
 60–6918 366 (32.60)17 262 (30.64)
 ≥7016 362 (29.04)20 849 (37.01)
 Range (min, max)(40, 102)(40, 106)
 Mean (±SD)63.24 (10.86)65.38 (11.56)
 Median (Q1, Q3)63.00 (55.03, 71.00)65.00 (57.00, 74.00)
Gender
 Male31 732 (56.33)30 561 (54.25)
 Female24 605 (43.67)25 776 (45.75)
Duration of treated diabetes at CED (years)
 <17805 (13.85)7883 (13.99)
 1–<26943 (12.32)6679 (11.86)
 2–<411 865 (21.06)11 578 (20.55)
 4–<610 936 (19.41)11 411 (20.25)
 ≥618 788 (33.35)18 786 (33.35)
 Range (min, max)(0.00, 34.18)(0.00, 24.79)
 Mean (±SD)4.72 (3.65)4.78 (3.70)
 Median (Q1, Q3)4.12 (1.76, 6.97)4.19 (1.82, 6.97)
Use of other TZD medications prior to CED
 Never41 847 (74.28)41 847 (74.28)
 Ever14 490 (25.72)14 490 (25.72)
Antidiabetic treatment immediately prior to CED*
 Metformin only16 526 (29.33)16 526 (29.33)
 Sulphonylureas (SU) only6110 (10.85)6110 (10.85)
 Metformin and SU14 277 (25.34)14 277 (25.34)
 Insulin (only or in combination)2705 (4.80)2705 (4.80)
 Other drugs or combinations10 062 (17.86)10 062 (17.86)
 No treatment6657 (11.82)6657 (11.82)
Number of different antidiabetic drug classes being used at CED†
 16905 (12.26)9961 (17.68)
 229 216 (51.86)29 767 (52.84)
 318 446 (32.74)15 917 (28.25)
 >31770 (3.14)692 (1.23)
Antidiabetic treatment at CED†
 Metformin only19 622 (34.83)3496 (6.21)
 SU only7442 (13.21)2418 (4.29)
 Metformin and SU13 659 (24.25)12 062 (21.41)
 Insulin (only or in comb.)2595 (4.61)20 840 (36.99)
 Other drugs or comb.6114 (10.85)17 521 (31.10)
 No treatment6905 (12.26)0 (0.00)
Diabetic complications at CED
 Diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy5747 (10.20)5953 (10.57)
 Lower limb severe complications1308 (2.32)1530 (2.72)
 Diabetic renal complications4771 (8.47)4870 (8.64)
 Ketoacidosis112 (0.20)145 (0.26)
 Hyperosmolar/
 ketoacidotic coma
822 (1.46)1280 (2.27)
Other comorbidities at CED
 Myocardial infarction or stroke4676 (8.30)6112 (10.85)
 Congestive heart failure1674 (2.97)3077 (5.46)
Year at CED
 2000–20033960 (7.03)6485 (11.51)
 2004–200721 151 (37.54)20 513 (36.41)
 2008–201131 226 (55.43)29 339 (52.08)
  • *Treatments initiated at CED are not included.

  • †Treatments initiated at CED are included. For the pioglitazone-exposed group, the listed treatments are in addition to pioglitazone.

  • CED, cohort entry date; PIO, pioglitazone; TZD, thiazolidinedione.