Table 2

Evaluable clinical variables common to both Western Diabetes Institute and Newcastle University cohorts according to periodontal Diabetes Cross-Disciplinary Index (DXDI) classification

Periodontal DXDI 1
(n=17)
Periodontal DXDI 2 (n=91)Periodontal DXDI 3 (n=71)Periodontal DXDI 4
(n=57)
p Value
Age (years)57.7±15.552.4±11.352.8±10.252.5±8.30.300
HbA1c (%)7.7±1.78.0±1.98.3±1.98.2±2.00.531
HbA1c (mmol/mol)60.2±18.563.7±20.567.2±20.265.7±19.90.519
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)144.1±16.7137.2±21.3138.2±21.2140.7±21.30.560
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81.4±11.980.5±10.281.5±15.883.2±16.10.714
Body mass index (kg/m2)35.0±8.134.8±8.433.1±8.234.4±6.00.542
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL)139.2±38.2125.1±44.7128.2±37.9125.7±36.50.841
Current smoker0 (0%)4 (4.4%)7 (9.9%)5 (8.8%)0.142
Former smoker3 (17.7%)29 (31.9%)24 (33.8%)25 (43.9%)
Never smoked14 (82.4%)58 (63.7%)40 (56.3%)27 (47.4%)
  • None was classified as periodontal DXDI 5 in either cohort. Values expressed as means ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables.

  • Periodontal health status stratification:  DXDI 1, periodontal health (PD ≤3 mm and BOP ≤15% of sites); DXDI 2, gingivitis/incipient periodontitis (PD ≤4 mm and/or BOP >15% of sites); DXDI 3, mild-moderate periodontitis (PD=5 mm at ≥1 site); DXDI 4, localized advanced periodontitis (PD ≥6 mm at ≤30% sites); DXDI 5, generalized advanced periodontitis (PD ≥6 mm at >30% sites).

  • BOP, bleeding on probing; PD, probing depth.