Table 2

Diabetes incidence rates and unadjusted and adjusted relative risks for predictors of progression to diabetes in Peru

Incidence per 1000 person-years (95% CI)Unadjusted RR
(95% CI)
Adjusted RR
(95% CI)
Overall (25+ years)19.5 (13.9 to 28.3)
Overall (35+ years)22.4 (15.9 to 32.6)
Sex
 Female15.6 (10.6 to 24.1)ReferenceReference
 Male26.9 (15.3 to 52.1)1.72 (0.83 to 3.57)1.54 (0.77 to 3.07)
Age (years)
  25–4410.2 (5.7 to 20.3)ReferenceReference
  45–6423.1 (14.4 to 39.5) 2.26 (1.06 to 4.79) 2.57 (1.27 to 6.11)
  65+29.2 (14.1 to 70.7) 2.85 (1.12 to 7.26) 5.44 (1.80 to 16.42)
Formal education (years)
 <718.4 (10.9 to 33.5)ReferenceReference
 8–1112.2 (6.0 to 29.1)0.67 (0.26 to 1.67)0.94 (0.36 to 2.48)
 12+28.4 (17.2 to 50.4)1.55 (0.75 to 3.18) 2.65 (1.18 to 5.96)
Geographical location
 Lima metro16.2 (9.3 to 30.8)ReferenceReference
 Rest of the coast21.6 (13.6 to 36.4)1.34 (0.68 to 2.64)1.69 (0.87 to 3.25)
 Mountains23.0 (9.2 to 75.4)1.42 (0.60 to 3.37)1.40 (0.62 to 3.15)
 Rainforest31.4 (10.4 to 143.0)1.94 (0.47 to 8.06)2.63 (0.60 to 11.66)
Home language
 Spanish19.1 (13.5 to 27.9)ReferenceReference
 Quechua30.5 (2.1 to 3671.1)1.85 (0.76 to 4.46)1.77 (0.21 to 14.85)
BMI (kg/mt2)
 <2507.3 (25.0 to 31.3)ReferenceReference
 25 to less than 3021.4 (12.6 to 39.4)2.92 (0.90 to 9.44)2.85 (0.96 to 8.49)
 30+30.3 (18.6 to 52.4) 4.14 (1.32 to 13.02) 4.86 (1.51 to 15.67)
Family history of diabetes
 No18.0 (12.3 to 27.5)ReferenceReference
 Yes27.3 (13.0 to 68.4)1.52 (0.68 to 3.40)1.57 (0.81 to 3.04)
Physical activity
 <150 min/week22.5 (14.1 to 38.1)ReferenceReference
 150+ min/week18.2 (11.6 to 30.5)0.80 (0.42 to 1.54)0.66 (0.36 to 1.21)
Tobacco consumption
 Non-smoker20.1 (13.8 to 30.3)ReferenceReference
 Former smoker23.2 (6.9 to 124.8)1.15 (0.34 to 3.86)0.58 (0.12 to 2.80)
 Current smoker12.0 (3.6 to 62.0)0.60 (0.18 to 1.95)0.46 (0.13 to 1.65)
Alcohol consumption
  Never/has quit17.5 (10.8 to 30.2)ReferenceReference
  Not much22.1 (13.4 to 39.5)1.27 (0.64 to 2.51)1.25 (0.61 to 2.55)
  Drinks a lot16.2 (3.3 to 168.9)0.93 (0.22 to 3.85)0.95 (0.28 to 3.27)
Arterial hypertension
  No19.4 (12.9 to 30.4)ReferenceReference
  Yes19.9 (11.3 to 37.8) 1.02 (0.50 to 2.08) 0.64 (0.29 to 1.42)
  • PERUDIAB 2015 Study.

  • Figures in bold indicate statistically significant values. For incidence estimates, the values in parentheses are jackknife confidence intervals whereas for relative risks they are derived from a bivariate (ie, unadjusted) or multivariate (ie, adjusted) generalized linear model with robust Poisson distribution and log link. No Smoking: not currently smoking or have smoked no more than 100 in their life. Former smoker: not currently smoking but has smoked more than 100 in their life. Current Smoker: currently smoke and have smoked more than 100 in their life. Arterial hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg.

  • BMI, means body mass index; RR, relative risks.