Table 2

Biomarkers of tubulointerstitial damage and function among included DCCT/EDIC Study participants with and without kidney disease

Kidney disease status*P value for difference
Controls (N=43)Cases (N=43)
Urine biomarkers†
 EGF (μg/g)21.2 (8.7)5.3 (2.8)<0.0001
 MCP-1 (ng/g)123 (100)596 (860)<0.0001
 Galectin-3 (μg/g)52 (35)168 (145)<0.0001
Plasma biomarkers
 sTNFR-1 (pg/mL)1022 (256)3695 (1289)<0.0001
 Galectin-3 (ng/mL)11.0 (5.3)21.3 (6.6)<0.0001
 Arginine-citrulline ratio (μg/μg)7.7 (2.8)5.6 (1.9)0.0004
Urinary clearance‡
 Hippurate (mL/min)167 (72)70 (79)<0.0001
 Cinnamoylglycine (mL/min)317 (150)77 (71)<0.0001
  • Cell contents are mean (SD).

  • *Cases were defined by incident persistent eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with urinary AER >300 mg/24 hour; control subjects were randomly selected from the pool of DCCT/EDIC Study participants who maintained persistent eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and AER <30 mg/24 hour through the study visit on which the corresponding case participant developed incident eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and were additionally matched to cases on duration of diabetes and DCCT cohort.

  • †Urinary biomarkers are expressed per gram of urine creatinine.

  • ‡Urinary clearances are restricted to 66 participants with timed urine collections.

  • AER, albumin excretion rate; DCCT/EDIC, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; sTNFR-1, plasma soluble tubular necrosis factor receptor-1.