Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants according to serum creatinine categories

Serum creatinine (mg/dL)P value for difference
0.38–0.690.70–0.790.80–0.890.90–1.10Total
Age, years42.4 (7.6)42.3 (7.1)42.2 (7.2)43.2 (7.2)42.5 (7.2)0.02
Glucose, mmol/L5.58 (0.69)5.50 (0.66)5.48 (0.56)5.52 (0.61)5.51 (0.62)0.04
Fasting58.564.269.469.266.6<0.01
Body mass index, kg/m223.2 (3.3)23.5 (3.2)23.7 (2.9)24.3 (3.2)23.7 (3.1)<0.01
Family history21.213.713.914.814.90.08
High physical activity35.735.238.845.038.8<0.01
Smoking status
 Never smokers19.823.427.430.426.1< 0.01
 Past smokers16.120.125.627.123.2< 0.01
Current smokers
 <20 cigarettes/day11.69.68.89.59.50.33
 ≥20 cigarettes/day52.546.838.233.041.2<0.001
Non-drinkers,20.321.621.926.222.70.01
Light drinkers
 <23  g ethanol/day41.047.550.848.748.20.02
Moderate drinkers
 23–45 g ethanol/day20.919.717.415.117.9<0.01
Heavy drinkers
 ≥46 g ethanol/day17.811.39.99.811.1<0.01
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) or %.