Table 1

Baseline characteristics and hypoglycemic outcomes of study population

VariableResults reported perDevelopment data setValidation data setFull cohort
AdmissionIndex day
Insulin-treated patient-days, nx90 05938 598128 657
Patient admissions, nx18 867739926 266
Unique patients, nx13 360590218 196
Hypoglycemic outcome, n (%)
 Any BG ≤70 mg/dLx3935 (4.4)1517 (3.9)5452 (4.2)
 Any BG <54 mg/dLx1081 (1.2)415 (1.1)1496 (1.2)
 Nadir BG, mg/dLx61 (52–66)61 (53–66)61 (52–66)
LOS, daysx6 (3–10)6 (4–11)6 (3–11)
Admitting service, n (%)x
 Medicinex9115 (48.3)3324 (44.9)12 439 (47.4)
 Surgeryx9752 (51.7)4075 (55.1)13 827 (52.6)
Age, yearsx61.1 (51.3–70.2)61.5 (52.2–69.8)61.2 (51.6–70.1)
Sex, male/female (%)x52.5/47.554.1/45.952.9/47.1
Race, n (%)x
 Whitex10 125 (53.7)3997 (54.0)14 122 (53.8)
 Blackx6923 (36.7)2589 (35.0)9512 (36.2)
 Asianx428 (2.3)224 (3.0)652 (2.5)
 Otherx1391 (7.4)589 (8.0)1980 (7.5)
Admission weight, kgx81.6 (67.8–98.1)82.2 (68.2–98.0)81.7 (68.0–98.1)
Insulin doses, unit/kg/day
 Total daily dosex0.10 (0.03–0.32)0.11 (0.03–0.32)0.10 (0.03–0.32)
 Basalx0.00 (0.00–0.15)0.00 (0.00–0.16)0.00 (0.00–0.16)
 Nutritionalx0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 (0.00–0.00)
 Correctionalx0.05 (0.02–0.11)0.05 (0.02–0.11)0.05 (0.02–0.11)
High-dose SSI, n (%)x53 488 (59.4)23 406 (60.6)76 894 (59.8)
Diet orders, n (%)x
 Nil per osx20 362 (22.6)8765 (22.7)29 127 (22.6)
 Carbohydrate-controlledx8832 (9.8)3450 (8.9)12 282 (9.6)
 Regular or other dietx58 198 (64.6)25 034 (64.9)82 232 (64.7)
 Bolus tube feedsx2667 (3.0)1349 (3.5)4016 (3.1)
Steroid use, n (%)x39 451 (43.7)17 809 (46.0)57 260 (44.4)
Type 1 diabetes/pancreatectomy, n (%)x900 (4.8)217 (2.9)1117 (4.3)
Type 2 diabetes, n (%)x11 357 (60.2)3434 (46.4)14 791 (56.3)
Acute kidney injury, n (%)x191 (1.0)41 (0.6)232 (0.9)
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)x
 Stage 3x3502 (18.6)421 (5.7)3921 (14.9)
 Stage 4x1287 (6.8)149 (2.0)1450 (5.5)
 Stage 5x919 (4.9)89 (1.2)1016 (3.9)
Liver failure, n (%)x153 (0.8)58 (0.8)211 (0.8)
Congestive heart failure, n (%)x431 (2.3)93 (1.3)524 (2.0)
Digestive disease, n (%)x935 (5.0)294 (4.0)1229 (4.7)
Pancreatic disease, n (%)x468 (2.5)144 (2.0)612 (2.3)
Index day glycemic measures
 Nadir BG, mg/dLx121 (100–147)122 (101–148)121 (100–147)
 Mean BG, mg/dLx158 (134–194)160 (136–197)158 (135–195)
 CV of BG, %x19.2 (12.8–27.8)18.9 (12.8–27.1)19.1 (12.8–27.6)
 Number of BG measurementsx5 (4–7)6 (5–7)5 (5–7)
Admission glycemic measures*
 Nadir BG, mg/dLx91 (73–115)91 (73–113)91 (73–114)
 Mean BG, mg/dLx161 (139–194)163 (141–196)162 (139–195)
 CV of BG, %x24.8 (19.0–32.5)25.2 (19.3–32.2)25.0 (19.1–32.4)
  • *Summarized for all patient-days prior to and including index day.  Data are median (interquartile range) and n (%).

  • BG, blood glucose; CV, coefficient of variation; LOS, length of stay; SSI, sliding scale insulin.