Table 1

Participant characteristics

Characteristicn=25
Age, mean (range)65 (45–81)
Gender
 Female, n (%)13 (52)
 Male, n (%)12 (48)
Race/ethnicity
 Black/African-American, n (%)6 (24)
 White/Caucasian, n (%)17 (68)
 Asian, n (%)2 (8)
Education
 No high school degree, n (%)1 (4)
 High school degree/GED, n (%)6 (24)
 Some college/associate’s degree, n (%)5 (20)
 College degree, n (%)6 (24)
 Postgraduate degree, n (%)7 (28)
Marital status
 Single7 (28)
 Married6 (24)
 Divorced8 (32)
 Widowed4 (16)
Scales
 Diabetes numeracy,* mean % correct (range)53.6% (0%–100%)
 Health literacy,† mean score (range)12.4 (9–15)
 Diabetes self-efficacy,‡ mean (range)28.8 (21–40)
 HgbA1C, mean7.5
 HgbA1C Group
 <7, n (%), (A1c value range)14 (56), (5.6–6.9)
 7 to 8.9, n (%), (A1c value range)7 (28), (7.1–8.4)
 >9, n (%), (A1c value range)4 (16), (10.1–12.6)
Medications
 Non-insulin dependent, n (%)12 (48)
 Insulin dependent, n (%)13 (52)
Comorbidities§
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%)17 (71)
 Hypertension, n (%)15 (60)
 Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, n (%)5 (20)
  • *Possible score range: 0% (worst) to 100% (best).

  • †Possible score range: 3 (worst) to 15 (best).

  • ‡Possible score range: 8 (worst) to 40 (best).

  • §Comorbidities are not mutually exclusive, percentages may total greater than 100%.

  • GED, general education diploma.