Table 4

Clinical characteristics, controlled levels of blood glucose, BP and lipid, and prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 and type 1 diabetes in cohort 1, which were re-examined in 2014. Ascertainment rate was 85.1% (2824/3319) for type 2 diabetes and 76.2% (218/286) for type 1 diabetes, respectively

Type 2 diabetesP value versus cohort 1 in 2004P value versus cohort 2 in 2014Type 1 diabetesP value versus cohort 1 in 2004P value versus cohort 2 in 2014
Cohort 1 in 2014Cohort 1 in 2014
Male (%)63.4NS<0.00143.1NSNS
Age (years)67.7±8.2<0.001<0.00155.0±12.3<0.001<0.001
Known duration (years)21±8<0.001<0.00124±9<0.001<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.2±4.0<0.001<0.00122.9±4.0<0.05NS
Diet/tablets/insulin (%)8.1/63.2/28.7<0.001<0.001
HbA1c, mmol/mol (%)56±7 (7.17±0.93)<0.001<0.00160±8 (7.66±1.07)<0.01NS
HbA1c on target (%)45.2<0.001<0.00126.6NSNS
  with diet alone (%)63.0NS<0.001
  with oral hypoglycemic tablets (%)49.8<0.001<0.001
 with insulin30.1<0.001NS
Systolic BP (mm Hg)128±14<0.05NS125±16<0.05NS
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)71±10<0.001<0.00171±11NSNS
Use of antihypertensive drugs (%)49.4<0.001<0.00132.6<0.001<0.01
BP on target (%)44.9<0.05<0.00150.0<0.01<0.01
  without antihypertensive drugs (%)46.8<0.05<0.0555.5<0.01<0.05
  with antihypertensive drugs (%)43.0<0.001NS38.6NSNS
LDL (mg/dl)106±26<0.001<0.05105±27NSNS
HDL (mg/dl)56±16<0.001NS68±18<0.01<0.05
non-HDL (mg/dl)130±29<0.001<0.05125±29NSNS
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%)38.2<0.001<0.00125.7<0.001<0.01
Lipid on target (%)54.4<0.001NS61.8NS<0.01
  without lipid-lowering drugs47.0<0.05NS61.9NS<0.05
  with lipid-lowering drugs65.8<0.001NS61.7NSNS
All of A1c, BP and lipids on targets (%)12.1<0.001<0.0019.0NSNS
Normoalbuminuria/microalbuminuria /macroalbuminuria (%)70.9/24.0/5.1<0.001<0.00184.6/11.8/3.6NSNS
CKD (%)50.5<0.001<0.00128.2NS<0.01
Retinopathy (%)35.5<0.001<0.00140.6NS<0.001
Neuropathy (%)28.8<0.001<0.00120.9NS<0.01
CAD (%)12.6<0.001<0.0015.7<0.05NS
Ischemic stroke (%)6.8<0.01<0.0012.2NSNS
  • Analysis between continuous values in 2004 and in 2014 of cohort 1 patients was performed by paired t-test.

  • ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD; chronic kidney disease (ACR ≥30 or eGFR <60); eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1C; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NS, not significant.