Table 2

Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and known medical conditions in people with type 1 diabetes and comparison with controls

SymptomType 1 diabetesControlsOR (95% CI)P values
Normal bowel habit541 (76.6%)540 (89.4)0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)<0.001
Constipation60 (8.5%)20 (3.3%)2.4 (1.4 to 4.1)<0.001
Diarrhea43 (6.1%)16 (2.6%)2.5 (1.4 to 4.5)0.0017
Alternating bowel habit62 (8.8%)27 (4.5%)2.1 (1.3 to 3.4)0.0013
Flatulence231 (34.9%)174 (28.8%)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)0.02
Bloating203 (30.7%)146 (24.2%)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.009
Floating stools84 (12.7%)31 (5.1%)2.7 (1.8 to 4.1)<0.001
Weight loss76 (11.5%)34 (5.6%)2.2 (1.4 to 3.3)0.0002
Abdominal pain117 (17.7%)81 (13.4%)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)0.037
TATT247 (37.3%)100 (16.6%)3.0 (2.3 to 3.9)<0.001
Celiac disease240.4 (0.1 to 2.3) NS
Anemia92531.5 (1.1 to 2.2)0.012
Thyroid87204.1 (2.5 to 6.8)<0.0001
Primary biliary cirrhosis10NA NS
Sjogren’s20NA NS
Dermatitis herpetiformis30NA NS
Osteoporosis15121.1 (0.5 to 2.3) NS
Epilepsy1534.3 (1.3 to 15.1)0.015
Neurologic disease29112.3 (1.1 to 4.7)0.023
Previous pancreatitis1634.6 (1.3 to 16.0)0.0009
Irritable bowel syndrome74481.4 (0.9 to 2.0) NS
Diverticular disease541.1 (0.3 to 4.0) NS
Inflammatory bowel disease823.4 (0.7 to 16.3) NS
Bowel cancer150.2 (0.02 to 1.5) NS
Other35161.9 (1.1 to 3.5)0.032
Appendectomy67461.3 (0.9 to 1.9) NS
Tonsillectomy1161041 (0.7 to 1.3) NS
  • NA, not applicable; TATT, tiredness all the time.