Table 1

Prevalence of GDM and risk factors among users of primary and secondary healthcare facilities

Test and reference cut-off valuesMean±SD% (n)95% CI*Facility (%)P values†
PrimarySecondary
Diagnostic tests
 2-hour OGTT ≥8.5 mmol/L‡6.7±1.79.0 (39)6.5 to 12.010.38.70.663
 2-hour OGTT ≥7.8 mmol/L§6.7±1.714.3 (63)11.0 to 17.520.512.90.106
 1-hour OGTT ≥10.0 mmol/L‡7.2±1.84.5 (20)2.7 to 6.76.44.10.368
 FPG ≥5.1 mmol/L‡5.1±0.923.8 (106)19.8 to 27.948.718.7<0.0001
 FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L§5.1±0.910.8 (48)7.9 to 13.723.48.2<0.0001
 HbA1c ≥6.5%§5.5±0.96.3 (30)4.2 to 8.511.75.20.040
Screening tests
 RBG >7.0 mmol/L§5.4±1.14.7 (23)2.9 to 6.76.24.40.562
 Glycosuria ≥trace3.1 (15)1.6 to 4.71.23.40.484
Risk factors
 Maternal age >35 years28.4±6.313.8 (62)10.5 to 17.213.313.91.000
 Gravidity above 52.7±1.55.4 (24)3.4 to 7.76.75.10.577
 Parity above 3 children1.5±1.37.1 (30)4.8 to 9.75.87.40.801
 Body weight >90 kg¶63.0±13.13.4 (15)1.8 to 5.31.43.80.483
 Height <150 cm¶161.8±8.24.2 (19)2.4 to 6.25.93.90.509
 BMI ≥29.9 kg/m224.7±4.912.0 (52)9.0 to 15.04.313.50.027
 MUAC >30 cm¶28.3±3.923.3 (103)19.5 to 27.616.924.50.220
 Family history of  diabetes6.4 (29)4.2 to 8.68.06.10.604
 Systolic BP >140 mm Hg106.6±12.42.0 (9)0.7 to 3.31.42.11.000
 Diastolic BP >90 mm Hg66.2±9.41.8 (8)0.7 to 3.11.41.91.000
 Proteinuria ≥1+ 4.2 (19)2.4 to 6.01.34.80.338
 Triglycerides >2.25 mmol/L3.0±1.759.5 (290)55.0 to 63.935.064.4<0.0001
  • *95% CI for the positive proportions (% (n)).

  • †Differences among primary and secondary facility estimated by χ2 test.

  • ‡Same tests but diagnostic criteria based on WHO guidelines.

  • §Same tests but diagnostic criteria based on the NICE guidelines.

  • ¶Maternal weight, height and MUAC measured in the first trimester.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; NICE, National Institutefor Health and Care Excellence; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; RBG, random blood glucose.