Table 1

Study participant characteristics

Overall, n=5352No medications, n=2603Non-sulfonylurea, n=1889Sulfonylurea, n=860P values
Age (years), mean (SD)67.1 (8.0)68.8 (8.8)65.5 (7.2)67.8 (8.1)<0.0001
Male, n (%)5277 (98.6)2568 (98.7)1854 (98.2)855 (99.4)0.03
Race, n (%)
 White4473 (83.6)2142 (82.3)1631 (86.3)700 (81.4)0.0002
 Black750 (14.0)395 (15.2)213 (11.3)142 (16.5)
 Asian32 (0.6)18 (0.7)13 (0.7)1 (0.1)
 Pacific Islander61 (1.1)24 (0.9)25 (1.3)12 (1.4)
 Native American36 (0.7)24 (0.9)7 (0.4)5 (0.6)
Family history of CAD, n (%)964 (18.0)449 (17.3)379 (20.1)136 (15.8)0.01
Tobacco, n (%)318 (59.4)1559 (59.9)1137 (60.2)484 (56.3)0.1
Hypertension, n (%)4986 (93.2)2403 (92.3)1764 (93.4)819 (95.2)0.01
Hyperlipidemia, n (%)4907 (91.7)2373 (91.2)1756 (93.0)778 (90.5)0.04
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)31.2 (5.5)31.2 (5.9)31.6 (5.5)30.9 (5.4)<0.0001
Framingham risk score, mean (SD)22.8 (11.2)23.8 (11.4)21.6 (10.4)23.3 (11.5)<0.0001
PAD, n (%)984 (18.4)488 (18.8)305 (16.2)191 (22.2)0.0006
CHF, n (%) 739 (13.8)396 (15.2)173 (9.2)170 (19.8)<0.0001
COPD, n (%)930 (17.4)476 (18.3)301 (15.9)153 (17.8)0.1
CKD, n (%)960 (17.9)524 (20.1)128 (6.8)308 (35.8)<0.0001
Dialysis, n (%)147 (2.8)106 (4.1)3 (0.2)38 (4.4)<0.0001
Depression, n (%)1461 (27.3)702 (27.0)556 (29.4)203 (23.6)0.006
PTSD, n (%)931 (17.4)434 (16.7)373 (19.8)124 (14.4)0.001
Presentation, n (%)
 Stable angina210 (3.9)112 (4.3)72 (3.8)26 (3.0)0.001
 Positive functional study1290 (24.3)611 (23.5)427 (22.6)252 (29.3)
 Ischemic heart disease470 (8.8)246 (9.5)152 (8.1)72 (8.4)
 Chest pain3242 (60.6)1558 (59.9)1191 (63.1)493 (57.3)
 Acute coronary syndrome140 (2.6)76 (2.9)47 (2.5)17 (2.0)
Postangiography revascularization, n (%)
 None2361 (44.1)1160 (44.6)794 (42.0)407 (47.3)0.02
 PCI1763 (32.9)878 (33.7)620 (32.8)265 (30.8)
 CABG1228 (22.9)565 (21.7)475 (25.2)188 (21.9)
Baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol), mean (SD)46 (4)(6.4% (0.6))46 (4)(6.4% (0.6))48 (4)(6.5% (0.6))49 (4)(6.6% (0.6))<0.0001
Baseline HbA1c category, n (%)
 <42 mmol/mol (<6%)1055 (19.7)625 (24.0)287 (15.2)143 (16.6)<0.0001
 42–47 mmol/mol (6%–6.4%)1634 (30.5)846 (32.5)570 (30.2)218 (25.4)
 48–52 mmol/mol (6.5%–6.9%)1540 (28.8)692 (26.6)603 (31.9)245 (28.5)
 53–57 mmol/mol (7%–7.4%)1123 (21.0)440 (16.9)429 (22.7)254 (29.5)
Diabetes duration (years), mean (SD)3.7 (2.71)3.8 (3.0)3.4 (2.4)3.9 (2.4)<0.0001
  • BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery by pass graft; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.