Table 5

Summary of the major cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between vitamin D and pre-diabetes

AuthorStudyType of populationNumber and type of subjectsRemarks
Kwon and Lim34 Cross-sectionalSouth Korean60 subjects with pre-diabetes, aged 20–65 yearsSubjects with pre-diabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels.
Karras et al35 Case–controlGreek144 individuals with pre-diabetes and 81 healthy age-matched control subjects, aged >65 years Vitamin D deficiency with high parathyroid hormone levels was significantly associated with glycemic dysregulation in patients with pre-diabetes.
Zagami et al36 Cross-sectional Italians286 subjects including those with pre-diabetes (n, 83) Subjects with pre-diabetes had significantly reduced 25(OH)D levels.
Ekbom and Marcus37 Cross-sectionalSwedish202 obese children, aged 4.5–17.9 yearsLow serum 25(OH)D levels were strongly associated with higher risk of impaired fasting glucose.
Abbasi et al25 Cross-sectionalNorthAmericans488 non-diabetic subjects including individuals with pre-diabetesSubjects with pre-diabetes and low circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were the most insulin resistant and had impaired β cell function.
Deleskog et al27 Longitudinal case–control studySwedishNormal glucose tolerance at baseline and progressed to either pre-diabetes (304 women, 428 men) or type 2 diabetes (47 women, 87 men)High serum 25(OH)D concentrations predicted a reduced risk of T2DM in individuals with pre-diabetes, but not in those with normal glucose tolerance.
Gupta et al26 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006NorthAmerican CaucasiansPre-diabetic and prehypertensive subjects (men, n, 898 and women, n, 813)Individuals with low 25(OH)D levels had elevated the risk for pre-diabetes.
Dutta et al14 Cross-sectionalAsian Indians residing in India (West)157 individuals with pre-diabetesVitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was associated with worsened insulin resistance in individuals with pre-diabetes.
Banerjee et al15 Cross-sectionalAsian Indians residing in India (West)73 individuals with pre-diabetes, 77 individuals with T2DM and 52 healthy control subjects.Serum 25(OH)D in subjects with pre-diabetes and T2DM was found to be inversely correlated with the serum levels of insulin.
  • T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.