Table 1

Baseline characteristics for participants of the EPIC-Potsdam and the GNHIES98 cohort

CharacteristicEPIC-Potsdam (N=25 392)GNHIES98 cohort (N=3717)
Sex (% male)38.749.1
Age (years)49.6±8.942.6±25.4
Waist circumference (cm)85.7±12.889.0±21.7
Body height (cm)168±8.7170±15.0
Prevalent hypertension (%)31.118.2
Former smoker (% <20 units/day)22.910.9
Former smoker (% ≥20 units/day)8.99.4
Current smoker (% <20 units/day)14.820.7
Current smoker (% ≥20 units/day)5.714.3
Wholegrain intake (bread, muesli) (50 g portion/day)1.0±1.21.3±1.5
Coffee consumption (150 g portion/day)2.8±2.12.7±2.5
Intake of red meat (150 g portion/day)0.3±0.20.6±0.3
Physical activity (hours/week)6.0±5.71.1±2.2
One parent with diabetes (%)21.528.1
Both parents with diabetes (%)2.32.0
At least one sibling with diabetes (%)5.15.1
GDRS points481±134492±264
Five-year diabetes risk (%)2.2±4.43.6±11.4
Hemoglobin A1c (%)5.5±2.15.4±1.1
  • Presentedvalues are combined means ± standard deviation (SD) or relative frequencies from multiple imputation with m=10imputations.

  • EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; GDRS, German Diabetes Risk Score.